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In this paper, we review the empirical publications from the 1990s on the assessment of object relations (OR). Twelve different measures are referenced. Major findings of studies, conclusions, and evaluations of each measure are provided. In general, it was found that the most recent empirical literature has compared OR across diagnostic groups or evaluated(More)
A 41-year-old female developed spontaneous burning pain (causalgia) and stimulus-induced dysesthesia (allodynia) of the dorso-lateral part of her right foot following trauma. An L3 and L4 sympathectomy eliminated the spontaneous burning pain for only 1 year, but did not affect the stimulus-induced dysesthesia. We evaluated her two years post-sympathectomy(More)
In the belief that secondary cerebral compression, hypoxia, and ischemia materially influence the outcome from severe head injury, a standardized protocol was followed in 160 patients, with emphasis on early diagnosis and evacuation of intracranial mass lesions by craniotomy, artificial ventilation, control of increased intracranial pressure, and aggressive(More)
An analysis of clinical signs, singly or in combination, multimodality evoked potentials (MEP's), computerized tomography scans, and intracranial pressure (ICP) data was undertaken prospectively in 133 severely head-injured patients to ascertain the accuracy, reliability, and relative value of these indicants individually, or in various combinations, in(More)
Patient expectations have been regarded as a variable affecting the course of psychotherapy for more than 50 years. Yet, even though expectations are often considered a factor common to most psychotherapy systems, their importance may be undervalued. This paper places the expectancy issue in a historical context, discusses the varied definitions of(More)
Antidepressant medication has apparently become the most popular treatment for depression in the USA. Several beliefs about the efficacy of antidepressant medications prevail among mental health professionals and the public. This paper explores relevant research data and raises questions about these beliefs. Many of the common beliefs about these(More)
Methods for obtaining multimodality evoked potentials, somatosensory, visual, auditory, and auditory brain-stem potentials in patients with severe head trauma are described. A method of analyzing abnormal multimodality evoked potentials (graded evoked brain-injury potentials) is proposed that defines the degree of abnormality of the electrophysiological(More)
Results of multimodality evoked potential (MEP) studies recorded from 100 comatose patients soon after severe head injury were analyzed prospectively, using a previously established grading system, to assess the prognostic value of MEP's with respect to patient outcome, to evaluate the effect of clinically relevant sequelae of head injury on the prediction(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) can influence neuronal survival and have been shown to be neuroprotective during glutamate toxicity in retinal cells and in cortical neurons. The mechanisms that mediate protection by this group of receptors are not clear. Since nitric oxide (NO) production can lead to neuronal cell death during excessive glutamate(More)