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Social behavior is ordinarily treated as being under conscious (if not always thoughtful) control. Howmer, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in an implicit or unconscious fashion. The identifying feature of implicit cognition is that past experience influences judgment in a fashion not introspectively known by(More)
Assessment of plastic and heritable components of phenotypic variation is crucial for understanding the evolution of adaptive character traits in heterogeneous environments. We assessed the above in relation to adaptive shell morphology of the rocky intertidal snail Nucella lapillus by reciprocal transplantation of snails between two shores differing in(More)
The bryozoan Celleporella has been shown to be composed of multiple, often cryptic, lineages. We sequenced two complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the Celleporella hyalina species complex from Wales, UK and Norway (i) to determine genetic divergence at the complete mt genome level, and (ii) to design new molecular markers for examining the(More)
Natural variability in stable isotope ratios and element concentrations in calcified structures of fish (e.g. scales and otoliths) has provided biogeochemical ‘tags’ for studying origins and movements of marine species, but has been little used in freshwater studies. We examine whether variability in scale δ15N and δ13C values of Salmo trutta L., could(More)
Polyembryony-the production of multiple cloned embryos from a single fertilised egg-is a seemingly paradoxical combination of reproductive modes that nevertheless persists in diverse taxa. We document features of polyembryony in the Cyclostomata (Bryozoa)-an ancient order of modular colonial marine invertebrates-that suggest a substantial reduction in the(More)
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015) is a global strategy for addressing disaster risk and resilience that has been ratified by member countries of the United Nations. Its guiding principles emphasise building resilience through inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as partnerships that facilitate community empowerment and address(More)
The intertidal snail Nucella lapillus generally has thicker shells at sites sheltered from wave action, where crabs are abundant and pose a high risk of predation, than at exposed sites where crabs are rare. We studied two populations showing the opposite trend. We reciprocally transplanted snails between field sites and measured shell length, width and lip(More)
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