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The cleavage of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein between the nonstructural proteins NS2 and NS3 is mediated by the NS2/3 protease, whereas the NS3 protease is responsible for the cleavage of the downstream proteins. Purification and in vitro characterization of the NS2/3 protease has been hampered by its hydrophobic nature. NS2/3 protease activity could(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease is essential for polyprotein maturation and viral propagation, and it has been proposed as a suitable target for antiviral drug discovery. An N-terminal hexapeptide cleavage product of a dodecapeptide substrate identified as a weak competitive inhibitor of the NS3 protease activity was optimized to a potent and(More)
The in vitro resistance profile of BI 201335 was evaluated through selection and characterization of variants in genotype 1a (GT 1a) and genotype 1b (GT 1b) replicons. NS3 R155K and D168V were the most frequently observed resistant variants. Phenotypic characterization of the mutants revealed shifts in sensitivity specific to BI 201335 that did not alter(More)
Hexapeptide DDIVPC-OH is a competitive inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease complexed with NS4A cofactor peptide. This hexapeptide corresponds to the N-terminal cleavage product of an HCV dodecapeptide substrate derived from the NS5A/5B cleavage site. Structure-activity studies on Ac-DDIVPC-OH revealed that side chains of the P4, P3 and P1(More)
Structure-activity studies on a hexapeptide N-terminal cleavage product of a dodecamer substrate led to the identification of very potent and highly specific inhibitors of the HCV NS3 protease/NS4A cofactor peptide complex. The largest increase in potency was accomplished by the introduction of a (4R)-naphthalen-1-yl-4-methoxy substituent to the P2 proline.(More)
Human apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 is composed of 4536 amino acids. It is thought that the binding of apoB to the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor involves an interaction between basic amino acids of the ligand and acidic residues of the receptor. Three alternative models have been proposed to describe this interaction: 1) a single region of apoB is(More)
The interactions of the NS3 protease domain with inhibitors that are based on N-terminal cleavage products of peptide substrates were studied by NMR methods. Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect experiments showed that these inhibitors bind the protease in a well defined, extended conformation. Protease-induced line-broadening studies helped identify the(More)
Replacement of the C-terminal carboxylic acid functionality of peptide inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease (complexed with NS4A peptide cofactor) by activated carbonyl groups does not produce any substantial increase in potency. These latter inhibitors also inhibit a variety of other serine and cysteine proteases whereas the carboxylic acids(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a 299 amino acid protein, is a ligand for the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr). It has been established that basic amino acids situated between apoE residues 136 and 150 participate in the interaction of apoE with the LDLr. Evidence suggests that apoE is heterogeneous on lipoproteins in its conformation and in its ability to(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) displays a high degree of genetic variability. Six genotypes and more than 50 subtypes have been identified to date. In this report, kinetic profiles were determined for NS3 proteases of genotypes 1a, 1b, 2ac, 2b, and 3a, revealing no major differences in activity. In vitro sensitivity studies with BILN 2061 showed a decrease in(More)