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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) drives fibrosis in diseases such as diabetic nephropathy (DN). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) has also been implicated in this, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We show that CTGF enhances the TGFbeta/Smad signaling pathway by transcriptional suppression of Smad 7 following rapid and sustained(More)
BACKGROUND Fibroblastic foci are characteristic features in lung parenchyma of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). They comprise aggregates of mesenchymal cells which underlie sites of unresolved epithelial injury and are associated with progression of fibrosis. However, the cellular origins of these mesenchymal phenotypes remain unclear. We(More)
Articular cartilage is a physiologically hypoxic tissue with a proposed gradient of oxygen tension ranging from about 10% oxygen at the cartilage surface to less than 1% in the deepest layers. The position of the chondrocyte within this gradient may modulate the cell's behavior and phenotype. Moreover, the oxygen gradient is likely to be disturbed during(More)
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is implicated as a factor promoting tissue fibrosis in several disorders, including diabetic nephropathy. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it functions is not known. CTGF rapidly activates several intracellular signaling molecules in human mesangial cells (HMC), including extracellular signal-related kinase(More)
Excessive deposition of fibronectin in the glomerular mesangium in diabetic nephropathy (DN) is partly due to the induction of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) by high glucose. TGF-beta induces its downstream mediator connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which stimulates fibronectin matrix synthesis, a process that requires the presence of(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS We quantified the glomerular expression of thrombospondin-1 (THBS1, also known as TSP-1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1, also known as TGF-beta1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) at each stage of diabetic nephropathy. We also examined the roles of THBS1 and CTGF in mediating high-glucose- and glycated-albumin-induced(More)
We characterized a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against human recombinant connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). The antibody recognised a higher molecular mass form (approx. 56 kDa) of CTGF in mesangial cell lysates as well as the monomeric (36-38 kDa) and lower molecular mass forms (<30 kDa) reported previously. Immunohistochemistry detected CTGF(More)
Interactions between inflammatory infiltrates and resident tubular epithelial cells may play important roles in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, by promoting epithelial cell-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (EMT). Human proximal tubular epithelial cells transdifferentiated to myofibroblasts after treatment with activated PBMC conditioned(More)
OBJECTIVE To use human cartilage samples and a mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA) to determine whether extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a constituent of cartilage and to evaluate whether there is a relationship between EC-SOD deficiency and OA. METHODS Samples of human cartilage were obtained from femoral heads at the time of joint(More)
The synthesis of hyaluronic acid by cultured chondrocytes from the Swarm rat chondrosarcoma was examined using [3H]glucosamine as a precursor. [3H]Hyaluronate in samples was estimated as the specific unsaturated disaccharide released by incubation with chondroitinase ABC under conditions where all [3H]hyaluronate was converted to disaccharide even in the(More)