Roger M. Enoka

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1. The relationship between the motor unit discharge pattern (rate and variability) and synchronization of motor unit pairs was studied in the first dorsal interosseus muscle of human subjects. In separate trials of up to 4 min duration, subjects voluntarily controlled the mean discharge rate of an identified motor unit at one of several prescribed rates(More)
This brief review examines some of the methods used to infer central control strategies from surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings. Among the many uses of the surface EMG in studying the neural control of movement, the review critically evaluates only some of the applications. The focus is on the relations between global features of the surface EMG and(More)
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of motor-unit synchronization on the surface electromyogram (EMG) and isometric force using a computer model of muscle contraction. The EMG and force were simulated by generating muscle fiber action potentials, defining motor-unit mechanical characteristics and territories, estimating motor-unit action(More)
This paper examines the physiological mechanisms responsible for differences in the amplitude of force fluctuations between young and old adults. Because muscle force is a consequence of motor unit activity, the potential mechanisms include both motor unit properties and the behavior of motor unit populations. The force fluctuations, however, depend not(More)
Muscle fatigue encompasses a class of acute effects that impair motor performance. The mechanisms that can produce fatigue involve all elements of the motor system, from a failure of the formulation of the descending drive provided by suprasegmental centers to a reduction in the activity of the contractile proteins. We propose four themes that provide a(More)
The goal of this study was to improve the ability of a motor unit model to predict experimentally measured force variability across a wide range of forces. Motor unit discharge characteristics were obtained from 38 motor units of the first dorsal interosseus muscle. Motor unit discharges were recorded in separate isometric contractions that ranged from 4 to(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the steadiness and discharge rate of motor units during submaximal contractions performed by young and old adults. Subjects performed isometric and slow shortening and lengthening contractions with the first dorsal interosseous muscle. The steadiness of the isometric and slow anisometric contractions was less for the(More)
The force exerted by a single limb during a maximal bilateral contraction has been found to be less than the force associated with a maximal unilateral contraction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this bilateral deficit is due to neural mechanisms. For one experiment, three groups of subjects (untrained, cyclists, and weight lifters)(More)
1. The effect of age on the motor output of the first dorsal interosseous muscle of 22 (6 female, 16 male) human subjects was investigated. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of age on the control of muscle force and the associated changes in the discharge behavior and mechanical properties of single motor units. 2. Each subject performed(More)
Eccentric contractions occur when activated muscles are forcibly lengthened. This mode of muscle function occurs frequently in the activities of daily living and in athletic competition. This review examines the experimental evidence that provides the foundation for our current understanding of the benefits, consequences, and control of eccentric(More)