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Kinesin motors power many motile processes by converting ATP energy into unidirectional motion along microtubules. The force-generating and enzymatic properties of conventional kinesin have been extensively studied; however, the structural basis of movement is unknown. Here we have detected and visualized a large conformational change of an approximately(More)
Microtubule-based ATPases of the kinesin superfamily provide the motile force for many animated features of living cells. Kinesin motors differ in their direction of movement along microtubules. Kinesin and ncd, a kinesin-related motor involved in formation and maintenance of mitotic and meiotic spindles, move in opposite directions along microtubules, even(More)
A new method of preparing biological samples for electron microscopy has been used to re-examine the structure of actin filaments, actin filaments decorated by myosin subfragment-1 (S1), and insect flight muscles. Samples were quick-frozen by contact with a block of copper cooled to approximately 4 K; then were freeze-fractured, deep-etched,(More)
We have measured the force-velocity curves of glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers over a range of ATP concentration from 2.5 microM to 5 mM. As the ATP concentration is increased, the isometric tension increases to a maximum around 50 microM, then decreases to a plateau at 70% of the maximum by 1 mM ATP. At low ATP concentrations the maximum velocity of(More)
The problem of combining pieces of information issued from several sources can be encountered in various fields of application. This paper aims at presenting the different aspects of information fusion in different domains, such as databases, regulations, preferences , sensor fusion, etc., at a quite general level. We first present different types of(More)
We review the applications of structured expert judgment uncertainty quantification using the "classical model" developed at the Delft University of Technology over the last 17 years (Cooke, 1991). These involve 45 expert panels, performed under contract with problem owners who reviewed and approved the results. With a few exceptions, all these applications(More)
  • Jan M Van Noortwijk, Roger M Cooke, Matthijs Kok, Max B Mendel, Richard E Barlow, Gert Jan Akkerman
  • 1995
For the purpose of modelling the maintenance of hydraulic structures, a failure model has been developed that is based on the only information that is commonly available: the amount of deterioration averaged over a bounded or an unbounded time-horizon. By introducing a prior density on the average deterioration per unit time, we can properly account for the(More)
The underlying stochastic nature of many models of the actomyosin interaction should result in fluctuations in both force and shortening velocity. In classical experimental approaches involving intact or glycerinated muscle preparations these fluctuations are too small to resolve owing to the large numbers of crossbridges involved. However, new experimental(More)