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Inward rectification was characterized in neonatal spiral ganglion neurons maintained in tissue culture. Whole cell current and voltage-clamp techniques were used to show that the hyperpolarization-activated cationic (Ih) current underlies most or all of the inward rectification demonstrated in these neurons. The average reversal potential (-41.3 mV) and(More)
Current-clamp recordings with the use of the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique were made from postnatal mouse spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Cultures contained neurons that displayed monopolar, bipolar, and pseudomonopolar morphologies. Additionally, a class of neurons having exceptionally large somata was observed. Frequency(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous work in our laboratory showed opioid agents inhibit cytokine expression in astrocytes. Recently, Watkins and colleagues hypothesized that opioid agonists activate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling, which leads to neuroinflammation. To test this hypothesis, we characterized LPS and opioid effects on TLR4 signalling in(More)
The generators of the frequency following response (FFR) were characterized for three frequency ranges by studying changes in FFR response after lesioning the nuclei within the central brainstem auditory pathway. Responses to low frequency (200-500 Hz) stimulation demonstrated changes in the complexity of the FFR waveform in both time and frequency domains(More)
Researchers have recently used the new programmable capabilities of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to increase the performance of scientific codes. We investigate the use of a cluster of GPUs for large-scale CFD problems and show order-of-magnitude increases in performance and performance-to-price ratio. We implement two separate compressible flow(More)
A new high-performance general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) library is introduced for use with structured-grid CFD algorithms. A novel set of parallel tridiagonal matrix solvers, implemented in CUDA, is included for use with structured-grid CFD algorithms. The solver library supports both scalar and(More)
SUMMARY This paper describes a new fast hybrid adaptive grid generation technique for arbitrary two-dimensional domains. This technique is based on a Cartesian background grid with square elements and quadtree decomposition. A new algorithm is introduced for the distribution of boundary points based on the curvature of the domain boundaries. The quadtree(More)
Nomenclature E = total energy g = acceleration due to gravity H = total enthalpy h = static enthalpy I = rothalpy k = turbulent kinetic energy p = pressure Pr = Prandtl number Pr t = turbulent Prandtl number R = radius from specified axis of rotation S ij = mean strain-rate tensor u = axial velocity component u ˆ = internal energy v = tangential velocity(More)
The results from two numerical simulations of the unsteady flow in a 1-1/2 stage axial-flow turbine are presented and compared with experimental data to show both the effect of blade count on the solution accuracy and the time-averaged and unsteady flow physics present. The TFLO three-dimensional, multi-block, massively parallel turbomachinery flow solution(More)
A new adaptive technique for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flows is presented. The initial mesh is generated based on a Cartesian grid with spatial decomposition and a simple optimization step to define the boundaries of the domain. This technique is fast and produces a quad-dominant mesh, while preserving the quality of the elements. Adaptive(More)