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The human hippocampal formation plays a crucial role in various aspects of memory processing. Most literature on the human hippocampus stresses its non-spatial memory functions, but older work in rodents and some other species emphasized the role of the hippocampus in spatial learning and memory as well. A few human studies also point to a direct relation(More)
An erect posture with bipedal locomotion is a characteristic feature of humans compared to other mammals. Most of our knowledge about the hierarchical network of supraspinal locomotor centers derives from animal experiments, mainly in the cat. We posed the question of whether evolutionary transition from quadrupedal to bipedal locomotion--with associated(More)
Patients with episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) can often be successfully treated with acetazolamide. The authors report three patients with EA2 (two with proven mutations in the CACNA1A gene) whose attacks were prevented with the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 5 mg tid). Attacks recurred after treatment was stopped; subsequent treatment(More)
Downbeat nystagmus (DBN), the most common form of acquired fixation nystagmus, is often caused by cerebellar degeneration, especially if the vestibulo-cerebellum is involved. The upward ocular drift in DBN has a spontaneous and a vertical gaze-evoked component. Since cerebellar involvement is suspected to be the underlying pathomechanism of DBN, we tested(More)
Nerve injury triggers numerous changes in the injured neurons and surrounding non-neuronal cells. Of particular interest are molecular signals that play a role in the overall orchestration of this multifaceted cellular response. Here we investigated the function of interleukin-6 (IL6), a multifunctional neurotrophin and cytokine rapidly expressed in the(More)
The role of the vestibular system for navigation and spatial memory has been demonstrated in animals but not in humans. Vestibular signals are necessary for location-specific "place cell" activity in the hippocampus which provides a putative neural substrate for the spatial representation involved in navigation. To investigate the spatial memory in patients(More)
Activation of microglia is among the first cellular changes in the injured CNS. However, little is known about their specific contribution to secondary damage or repair processes in neighboring neurons and nonneuronal cells or to the immune surveillance of the damaged tissue. Animal models with defective microglial response such as osteopetrosis provide an(More)
The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine mental imagery of locomotion has become an attractive way to investigate supraspinal gait control in humans. Whereas cerebral activation patterns associated with walking along a straight line have already been investigated, data on activations associated with the initiation of turns and the(More)
Human neuroimaging studies have implicated a number of brain regions in long-term memory formation. Foremost among these is ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Here, we used double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess whether the contribution of this part of cortex is crucial for laying down new memories and, if so, to examine the time(More)