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In order to assess the potential of protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker of the nervous and neuroendocrine systems, we examined its immunolocation in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues, using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum and two new mouse monoclonal antisera, I3C4 and 3IA3. Our results demonstrate immunoreactive PGP 9.5 in neurons and nerve fibres at(More)
PGP 9.5 is a new cytoplasmic neuron-specific protein structurally and immunologically distinct from neuron-specific enolase. A specific antiserum has now shown that this protein is widely distributed in vertebrate brains and is also present in cells of the human diffuse neuroendocrine system. PGP 9.5 appears to be older than neuron-specific enolase in(More)
Neuronal excitotoxicity during stroke is caused by activation of unidentified large-conductance channels, leading to swelling and calcium dysregulation. We show that ischemic-like conditions [O(2)/glucose deprivation (OGD)] open hemichannels, or half gap junctions, in neurons. Hemichannel opening was indicated by a large linear current and flux across the(More)
Pannexin-1 (Px1) is expressed at postsynaptic sites in pyramidal neurons, suggesting that these hemichannels contribute to dendritic signals associated with synaptic function. We found that, in pyramidal neurons, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation induced a secondary prolonged current and dye flux that were blocked with a specific inhibitory(More)
Protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 is a new brain-specific protein originally detected by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of the soluble proteins of human brain and other organs. We have purified this protein from human brain and raised a rabbit antihuman PGP 9.5 antiserum. The protein has a monomer molecular weight of approximately 27,000 and(More)
The co-ordinate sequencing of the human neuronal and neuroendocrine marker protein PGP 9.5 and its cDNA is described. The cDNA encodes the complete protein (212 amino acids), and the 340 nucleotide 3'-noncoding region including the polyadenylation signal, indicating an mRNA slightly larger than 1 kb in size. Protein sequencing of 50% of PGP 9.5 confirms the(More)
Pannexins are large-pore ion channels with broad expression in the central nervous system (CNS). The channels function by releasing large signaling molecules, such ATP and arachidonic acid derivatives, from neurons and possibly astrocytes. They might also contribute to novel forms of non-synaptic communication in the CNS, thereby affecting synaptic(More)
An antiserum to human 14-3-3 protein has been produced in rabbits. The protein was a poor antigen and attempts to improve immunogenicity were unsuccessful. A radioimmunoassay was developed using the antiserum, 125I-14-3-3-2, and unlabelled 14-3-3-2 as standards. The assay had a sensitivity limit of 2.5 ng.ml-1. The minor component of human 14-3-3 protein(More)
Mammalian gap junction proteins, connexins, have long been implicated in tumor suppression. Recently, a novel family of proteins named pannexins has been identified as the mammalian counterpart of the invertebrate gap junction proteins, innexins. To date, pannexin 1 (Panx1) and pannexin 2 (Panx2) mRNAs are reported to be expressed in the brain. Most(More)
Human 14-3-2 protein, a nervous-system specific enolase (EC isoenzyme, has been purified from human brain and a sensitive radioimmunoassay has been developed for its detection. A systematic survey of human organs has shown that immunoreactive nervous-system specific enolase is present in all human organs but at levels less than 3% of those found(More)