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We investigated some visual background features that influence young cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, to change their skin patterning from 'general resemblance' of the substratum to disruptive coloration that breaks up their body form. Using computer-generated black/white checkerboard patterns as substrata, we first found that the size of the white squares had(More)
sophisticated enough to defeat the visual prowess of diverse predators — teleost fishes, diving birds and marine mammals. Curiously, the quantification and experimental testing of camouflage principles have scarcely been addressed by biologists. By studying the cephalopods, we may have stumbled onto some general principles of animal coloration. Most animals(More)
Laboratory mazes were used to study spatial-learning capabilities in cuttlefish (Sepia offcinalis), using escape for reinforcement. In preliminary observations, cuttlefish in an artificial pond moved actively around the environment and appeared to learn about features of their environment. In laboratory experiments, cuttlefish exited a simple alley maze(More)
Although hearing has been described for many underwater species, there is much debate regarding if and how cephalopods detect sound. Here we quantify the acoustic sensitivity of the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) using near-field acoustic and shaker-generated acceleration stimuli. Sound field pressure and particle motion components were measured from 30 to(More)
Cuttlefish change their appearance rapidly for camouflage on different backgrounds. Effective camouflage for a benthic organism such as cuttlefish must deceive predators viewing from above as well as from the side, thus the choice of camouflage skin pattern is expected to account for horizontal and vertical background information. Previous experiments dealt(More)
Octopuses forage far from temporary home dens to which they return for shelter. Spatial tasks may assess learning. Octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) were placed in a novel arena, and their movements were tracked for 72 hr. Movements around the arena decreased across time, consistent with exploratory learning. Next, octopuses were given 23 hr to move around(More)
Squids have a wide repertoire of body patterns; these patterns contain visual signals assembled from a highly diverse inventory of chromatic, postural, and locomotor components. The chromatic components reflect the activity of dermal chromatophore organs that, like the postural and locomotor muscles, are controlled directly from the central nervous system.(More)
Survivable injuries are a common yet costly experience. The ability to sense and respond to noxious stimuli is an almost universal trait, and prolonged behavioral alterations, including sensitization to touch and other stimuli, may function to ameliorate fitness costs associated with injury. Cephalopods can modify their behavior by learned association with(More)
A mass spawning of squid resembles, at first glance, a chaotic "nuptial dance" (1). But for the first time, we have applied 3-D, radio-linked acoustic positioning (RAP) to this confusing process, and our early results now reveal a choreography that is, in fact, well organized in time and space. Remote tracking with RAP of individual Loligo vulgaris(More)