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CD20 is an important target for the treatment of B-cell malignancies, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as autoimmune disorders. B-cell depletion therapy using monoclonal antibodies against CD20, such as rituximab, has revolutionized the treatment of these disorders, greatly improving overall survival in patients. Here, we report the development of(More)
The increasing use of primary tumors as surrogate markers for prognosis and therapeutic decisions neglects evolutionary aspects of cancer progression. To address this problem, we studied the precursor cells of metastases directly for the identification of prognostic and therapeutic markers and prospectively analyzed single disseminated cancer cells from(More)
To the Editor: Since the first marketing approvals of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, the question of which changes in quality attributes, which comprise identity, strength and purity, are acceptable in the life cycle of these products without changing the product label has been debated extensively1. This question is especially important in the context of(More)
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) contributes to clinical efficacy of a broad range of antibody therapeutics. However, reproducible quantitation of ADCC activity on a cellular level remains highly challenging, as ADCC assays rely on primary effector cells associated with laborious cell purification procedures, resulting in highly(More)
The effects of the Fc silencing mutations such as leucine (L) to alanine (A) substitution at the position 234 and 235 (LALA) and the alanine (A) to asparagine (N) substitution at position 297 (N297A) are well investigated for human IgG. However, the effects of the same two silencing Fc mutations in a mouse IgG backbone are not yet well investigated in(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Biosimilars are approved biologics that are comparable to an originator product with respect to quality, safety and efficacy. Herein, the authors describe the functional and non-clinical studies designed to determine the biosimilarity of GP2015 and originator etanercept (Enbrel®). METHODS The development of an Enbrel biosimilar(More)
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