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Two surfactant protein A (SP-A) genes and several alleles for each SP-A locus have been previously described. In this report we investigate the potential usefulness of the SP-A loci as markers for genetic studies. We establish conditions that allow the identification of alleles with very similar sequences; We also determine the degree of polymorphism for(More)
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was obtained from 24 sequentially studied patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for assessment of potential activating and mediating factors. Proteolytic activity of the fluids was observed by measuring cleavage of radiolabeled proteins of the contact (Hageman factor) and complement systems. Proteolytic(More)
Evidence is presented indicating that oxidants are generated in lungs of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The evidence was derived from observations that alpha-1-PI, recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, had been inactivated by oxidation, presumably oxidation of the methionyl residue in the reaction site of the(More)
H2O2, in concentrations achieved in the proximity of stimulated leukocytes, induces injury and lysis of target cells. This may be an important aspect of inflammatory injury of tissues. Cell lysis in two target cells, the murine macrophage-like tumor cell line P388D1 and human peripheral lymphocytes, was found to be associated with activation of(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical studies suggest that exogenous surfactant may be of value in the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and two phase 2 clinical trials have shown a trend toward benefit. We conducted two phase 3 studies of a protein-containing surfactant in adults with ARDS. METHODS In two multicenter, randomized, double-blind(More)
Inhibition of ADP phosphorylation by both glycolysis and mitochondria in P388D1 cells exposed to H2O2 is described. Net glucose uptake and lactate production were inhibited by oxidant exposure (ED50 = 50-100 microM). Glycolysis was specifically inactivated at the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase step by three independent mechanisms: (a) direct(More)
The blood-gas barrier must be very thin to allow gas exchange and it is therefore subjected to high mechanical stresses when the capillary pressure rises. In some animals, such as the thoroughbred race-horse during intense exercise, the stresses are so large that the capillaries fail and bleeding occurs. We tested the hypothesis that, in elite human(More)
To determine the biochemical basis of the oxidant-induced injury of cells, we have studied early changes after exposure of P388D1 murine macrophages to hydrogen peroxide. Total intracellular NAD+ levels in P388D1 cells decreased with H2O2 concentrations of 40 microM or higher. Doses of H2O2 between 0.1 and 2.5 mM led to an 80% depletion of NAD within 20(More)
To investigate mechanisms whereby oxidant injury of cells results in cell dysfunction and death, cultured endothelial cells or P388D1 murine macrophage-like cells were exposed to oxidants including H2O2, O2-. (generated by the enzymatic oxidation of xanthine), or to stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Although Trypan Blue exclusion was not(More)