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The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a process of nonhydrostatic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia associated with a variety of etiologies, carries a high morbidity rate, mortality rate (10% to 90%), and financial cost. The reported annual incidence in the United States is 150,000 cases, but this figure has been challenged and may be different in(More)
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) continues as a contributor to the morbidity and mortality of patients in intensive care units throughout the world, imparting tremendous human and financial costs. During the last 10 years there has been a decline in ARDS mortality without a clear explanation. The American-European Consensus Committee on ARDS(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical studies suggest that exogenous surfactant may be of value in the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and two phase 2 clinical trials have shown a trend toward benefit. We conducted two phase 3 studies of a protein-containing surfactant in adults with ARDS. METHODS In two multicenter, randomized, double-blind(More)
Lung surfactant is deficient in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We performed a randomized, prospective, controlled, open-label clinical study of administration of a bovine surfactant to patients with ARDS to obtain preliminary information about its safety and efficacy. Patients received either surfactant by endotracheal(More)
Inhibition of ADP phosphorylation by both glycolysis and mitochondria in P388D1 cells exposed to H2O2 is described. Net glucose uptake and lactate production were inhibited by oxidant exposure (ED50 = 50-100 microM). Glycolysis was specifically inactivated at the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase step by three independent mechanisms: (a) direct(More)
Evidence is presented indicating that oxidants are generated in lungs of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The evidence was derived from observations that alpha-1-PI, recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, had been inactivated by oxidation, presumably oxidation of the methionyl residue in the reaction site of the(More)
To determine the biochemical basis of the oxidant-induced injury of cells, we have studied early changes after exposure of P388D1 murine macrophages to hydrogen peroxide. Total intracellular NAD+ levels in P388D1 cells decreased with H2O2 concentrations of 40 microM or higher. Doses of H2O2 between 0.1 and 2.5 mM led to an 80% depletion of NAD within 20(More)
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was obtained from 24 sequentially studied patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for assessment of potential activating and mediating factors. Proteolytic activity of the fluids was observed by measuring cleavage of radiolabeled proteins of the contact (Hageman factor) and complement systems. Proteolytic(More)
The blood-gas barrier must be very thin to allow gas exchange and it is therefore subjected to high mechanical stresses when the capillary pressure rises. In some animals, such as the thoroughbred race-horse during intense exercise, the stresses are so large that the capillaries fail and bleeding occurs. We tested the hypothesis that, in elite human(More)