Roger F. Butterworth

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Results of neuropathologic, spectroscopic, and neurochemical studies continue to confirm a major role for ammonia in the pathogenesis of the central nervous system complications of both acute and chronic liver failure. Damage to astrocytes characterized by cell swelling (acute liver failure) or Alzheimer Type II astrocytosis (chronic liver failure) can be(More)
Hyperammonemia resulting from inherited urea cycle enzyme deficiencies or liver failure results in severe central nervous system dysfunction including brain edema, convulsions and coma. Neuropathologic evaluation in these disorders reveals characteristic alterations of astrocyte morphology ranging from cell swelling (acute hyperammonemia) to Alzheimer Type(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that manganese deposition is responsible for the T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal hyperintensity consistently observed in pallidum of cirrhotic patients. However, the relationship between blood manganese and the etiology or severity of liver disease, as well as the neurological symptomatology in these(More)
The pathogenesis of brain edema in acute liver failure is poorly understood. We have previously shown that rats with ischemic acute liver failure (portacaval anastomosis followed by hepatic artery ligation) exhibit brain edema and intracranial hypertension, with swelling of cortical astrocytes as the most prominent neuropathological abnormality. Because(More)
Objectives of the International Society for Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism Commission were to identify well-characterized animal models of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and to highlight areas of animal modelling of the disorder that are in need of development. Features essential to HE modelling were identified. The best-characterized animal(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Manganese (Mn) deposition could be responsible for the T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance signal hyperintensities observed in cirrhotic patients. These experiments were designed to assess the regional specificity of the Mn increases as well as their relationship to portal-systemic shunting or hepatobiliary dysfunction. METHODS Mn(More)
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that occurs in both acute and chronic liver failure. Although the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for HE are not completely understood, a deficit in neurotransmission rather than a primary deficit in cerebral energy metabolism appears to be involved. The neural cell most vulnerable(More)
Astrocytes play a key role in the pathogenesis of ammonia-induced neurotoxicity and hepatic encephalopathy. As shown here, ammonia induces protein tyrosine nitration in cultured rat astrocytes, which is sensitive to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801. A similar pattern of nitrated proteins is produced by NMDA. Ammonia-induced(More)
Encephalopathy and brain edema are serious complications of acute liver failure (ALF). The precise pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible have not been fully elucidated but it has been recently proposed that microglia-derived proinflammatory cytokines are involved. In the present study we evaluated the role of microglial activation and the protective(More)