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Four genes encode electroneutral, Na+-independent, K-Cl cotransporters. KCC2, is exclusively expressed in neurons where it is thought to drive intracellular Cl- to low concentrations and shift the reversal potential for Cl- conductances such as GABA(A) or glycine receptor channels, thus participating in the postnatal development of inhibitory mechanisms in(More)
Peripheral neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACCPN) is a severe sensorimotor neuropathy associated with mental retardation, dysmorphic features and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. ACCPN is transmitted in an autosomal recessive fashion and is found at a high frequency in the province of Quebec, Canada. ACCPN has(More)
In the present study, we have demonstrated functional interaction between Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK), WNK4 [with no lysine (K)], and the widely expressed Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter type 1 (NKCC1). NKCC1 function, which we measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes under both isosmotic (basal) and hyperosmotic (stimulated) conditions, was(More)
Deafness can result from a variety of gene defects. Some genes involved in the physiology of hearing encode membrane transporters that regulate the ionic composition of the fluid bathing the inner ear. The endolymph is an extracellular fluid with an atypical composition that resembles the intracellular milieu, high in K+ and low in Na+. Recent studies have(More)
Texas Red-labelled dextran with a mol. wt of 3000 g mol-1, a marker for the extracellular space, was injected unilaterally into the neostriatum of adult rats (0.3-30 micrograms microliter-1) and its distribution evaluated 1 min to 5 h later. Diffusion in the neuropil was observed with clearance starting after 30 min. After 10-15 min strong labelling along(More)
Activity of heterologously expressed NKCC1 was analyzed under basal and activated conditions in the presence and absence of binding of Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). Mutant NKCC1 that lacks the ability to bind to this kinase showed K+ transport function identical to wild-type NKCC1. Thus, preventing the binding of the kinase to the(More)
This paper discusses the implementation of a parallel text retrieval system using a microprocessor network. The system is designed to allow fast searching in document databases organised using the serial file structure, with a very rapid initial text signature search being followed by a more detailed, but more time-consuming, pattern matching search. The(More)