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Peripheral neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACCPN) is a severe sensorimotor neuropathy associated with mental retardation, dysmorphic features and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. ACCPN is transmitted in an autosomal recessive fashion and is found at a high frequency in the province of Quebec, Canada. ACCPN has(More)
In the present study, we have demonstrated functional interaction between Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK), WNK4 [with no lysine (K)], and the widely expressed Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter type 1 (NKCC1). NKCC1 function, which we measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes under both isosmotic (basal) and hyperosmotic (stimulated) conditions, was(More)
Four genes encode electroneutral, Na+-independent, K-Cl cotransporters. KCC2, is exclusively expressed in neurons where it is thought to drive intracellular Cl- to low concentrations and shift the reversal potential for Cl- conductances such as GABA(A) or glycine receptor channels, thus participating in the postnatal development of inhibitory mechanisms in(More)
Deafness can result from a variety of gene defects. Some genes involved in the physiology of hearing encode membrane transporters that regulate the ionic composition of the fluid bathing the inner ear. The endolymph is an extracellular fluid with an atypical composition that resembles the intracellular milieu, high in K+ and low in Na+. Recent studies have(More)
Our recent studies demonstrate that SPAK (Ste20p-related Proline Alanine-rich Kinase), in combination with WNK4 [With No lysine (K) kinase], phosphorylates and stimulates the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1), whereas catalytically inactive SPAK (K104R) fails to activate the cotransporter. The catalytic domain of SPAK contains an activation loop between the(More)
Activity of heterologously expressed NKCC1 was analyzed under basal and activated conditions in the presence and absence of binding of Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). Mutant NKCC1 that lacks the ability to bind to this kinase showed K+ transport function identical to wild-type NKCC1. Thus, preventing the binding of the kinase to the(More)
This paper discusses the implementation of a parallel text retrieval system using a microprocessor network. The system is designed to allow fast searching in document databases organised using the serial file structure, with a very rapid initial text signature search being followed by a more detailed, but more time-consuming, pattern matching search. The(More)
BACKGROUND SPAK (Ste20p-related proline alanine-rich kinase) phosphorylates and activates NKCC1 (Na-K-2Cl cotransporter) in the presence of another serine/threonine kinase WNK4 (With No lysine (K)). However, whether or not the docking of SPAK to NKCC1 is a requirement for cotransporter activation has not been fully resolved. METHODS We mutated both SPAK(More)