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This study consists of 959 consecutive patients in whom endoscopic biopsies were taken according to a protocol that permitted mapping and measurement of epithelial types in the gastroesophageal region. The epithelial types were classified as normal (oxyntic and squamous) and questionably abnormal (oxyntocardiac, cardiac, intestinal) by strict histologic(More)
Current diagnostic criteria for reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus are based on the belief that the gastroesophageal junction normally contains 2 cm of cardiac mucosa composed of mucous glands devoid of parietal cells. This autopsy study disproves this belief. Even when the entire circumference of the gastroesophageal junction is examined, pure cardiac(More)
An abnormal columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) is characterized by the presence of cardiac mucosa (CM) oxynto-cardiac mucosa (OCM), and intestinal metaplastic epithelium (IM) between gastric oxyntic mucosa and esophageal squamous epithelium. Thirty-two patients with CLE measuring 2-16 cm long had 5-37 biopsies per patient that showed CM, OCM, or IM for a total(More)
SUMMARY. There is controversy as to whether oxynto-cardiac mucosa (OCM), cardiac mucosa (CM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) found in the gastroesophageal-junction region line the anatomic stomach, esophagus or both. A total of 785 retroflex biopsies taken at the endoscopic gastroesophageal junction in 244 patients were evaluated for the presence of gland(More)
This series consists of 141 patients in whom cardiac mucosa (CM) was present in biopsy samples from the gastroesophageal junctional region. Inflammation of CM, irrespective of its exact anatomic location, was defined as carditis and classified as acute or chronic based on the number of inflammatory cells present. In all cases, CM showed significant chronic(More)
A positive association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been reported. Barrett esophagus (BE) is a precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cardiac mucosa (CM) and BE are both reflux-induced metaplastic columnar epithelia in the esophagus. We investigated the association between BMI and BE/CM in a case-control(More)
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