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Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein that acts as a decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. The OPG/RANKL/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB axis plays an important regulatory role in the skeletal, immune, and vascular systems. The protective role(More)
1. We have compared the receptors mediating the contractions of rings of rat thoracic aorta or rabbit pulmonary artery and rat stomach strips in response to the endothelin/sarafotoxin (ET/SX) family of peptides and to those mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilations within the isolated perfused mesentery of the rat. To discriminate ETA receptors from ETB(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to prospectively evaluate the relationship between plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG), inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], coronary artery calcification (CAC), and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. BACKGROUND Arterial calcification is a prominent feature(More)
OBJECTIVES This study prospectively evaluated the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, selected biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin [IL]-6, and osteoprotegerin [OPG]), and the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in type 2 diabetic subjects. BACKGROUND Coronary artery calcification is(More)
AIMS To determine the prevalence and clinical predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemia in uncomplicated type 2 diabetes and assess their relationship to short-term outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS Established risk factors and coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were prospectively measured in 510 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic subjects(More)
Regular, moderate consumption of red wine is linked to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease and to lower overall mortality, but the relative contribution of wine's alcohol and polyphenol components to these effects is unclear. Here we identify procyanidins as the principal vasoactive polyphenols in red wine and show that they are present at higher(More)
Abnormal elevation of hepatic gluconeogenesis is central to the onset of hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Metformin corrects hyperglycaemia through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, but its mechanism of action is yet to be fully described. SIRT1 and GCN5 (listed as KAT2A in the MGI Database) have recently been identified as(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelin-3 (ET-3), sarafotoxin 6b (SX6b), and sarafotoxin 6C (SX6c) were used as agonists, and BQ-123 (ETA-selective) and PD 142893 (ET receptor-nonselective) were used as antagonists to characterize the receptors mediating the effects of the ET/SX peptides on a variety of isolated smooth-muscle preparations. Contractions of the rat(More)
In man, glucocorticoid treatment and endogenous corticosteroid excess generally suppress stimulated GH release. However, such effects are not entirely consistent and depend on both the duration of pituitary exposure to steroids and the secretagogue employed. To further evaluate the effects of glucocorticoids in man, we have studied the response to four(More)