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Ecological extinction caused by overfishing precedes all other pervasive human disturbance to coastal ecosystems, including pollution, degradation of water quality, and anthropogenic climate change. Historical abundances of large consumer species were fantastically large in comparison with recent observations. Paleoecological, archaeological, and historical(More)
Kinesin motors power many motile processes by converting ATP energy into unidirectional motion along microtubules. The force-generating and enzymatic properties of conventional kinesin have been extensively studied; however, the structural basis of movement is unknown. Here we have detected and visualized a large conformational change of an approximately(More)
Microtubule-based ATPases of the kinesin superfamily provide the motile force for many animated features of living cells. Kinesin motors differ in their direction of movement along microtubules. Kinesin and ncd, a kinesin-related motor involved in formation and maintenance of mitotic and meiotic spindles, move in opposite directions along microtubules, even(More)
The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we report one of the first milestones of this project, the(More)
The plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has become an important model species for the study of many aspects of plant biology. The relatively small size of the nuclear genome and the availability of extensive physical maps of the five chromosomes provide a feasible basis for initiating sequencing of the five chromosomes. The YAC (yeast artificial(More)
Systematic analysis of the Arabidopsis genome provides a basis for detailed studies of genome structure and evolution. Members of multigene families were mapped, and random sequence alignment was used to identify regions of extended similarity in the Arabidopsis genome. Detailed analysis showed that the number, order, and orientation of genes were conserved(More)
A new method of preparing biological samples for electron microscopy has been used to re-examine the structure of actin filaments, actin filaments decorated by myosin subfragment-1 (S1), and insect flight muscles. Samples were quick-frozen by contact with a block of copper cooled to approximately 4 K; then were freeze-fractured, deep-etched,(More)
We have measured the force-velocity curves of glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers over a range of ATP concentration from 2.5 microM to 5 mM. As the ATP concentration is increased, the isometric tension increases to a maximum around 50 microM, then decreases to a plateau at 70% of the maximum by 1 mM ATP. At low ATP concentrations the maximum velocity of(More)
Eukaryotic ribosomes are made of two components, four ribosomal RNAs, and approximately 80 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). The exact number of r-proteins and r-protein genes in higher plants is not known. The strong conservation in eukaryotic r-protein primary sequence allowed us to use the well-characterized rat (Rattus norvegicus) r-protein set to(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for plant biologists. In 1996 an international collaboration (the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative) was formed to sequence the whole genome of Arabidopsis and in 1999 the sequence of the first two chromosomes was reported. The sequence of the last three chromosomes and an analysis of the whole genome are(More)