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Kinesin motors power many motile processes by converting ATP energy into unidirectional motion along microtubules. The force-generating and enzymatic properties of conventional kinesin have been extensively studied; however, the structural basis of movement is unknown. Here we have detected and visualized a large conformational change of an approximately(More)
The products of MgATP hydrolysis bind to the nucleotide site of myosin and thus may be expected to inhibit the contraction of muscle fibers. We measured the effects of phosphate and MgADP on the isometric tensions and isotonic contraction velocities of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle at 10 degrees C. Addition of phosphate decreased isometric force but did(More)
We have studied the effect of myosin P-light chain phosphorylation on the isometric tension generated by skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle at 0.6 and 10 microM Ca2+. At the lower Ca2+ concentration, which produced 10-20% of the maximal isometric tension obtained at 10 microM Ca2+, addition of purified myosin light chain resulted in a 50% increase in(More)
Microtubule-based ATPases of the kinesin superfamily provide the motile force for many animated features of living cells. Kinesin motors differ in their direction of movement along microtubules. Kinesin and ncd, a kinesin-related motor involved in formation and maintenance of mitotic and meiotic spindles, move in opposite directions along microtubules, even(More)
1. The effects of phosphate and protons on the mechanics and energetics of muscle contraction have been investigated using glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle. 2. Fibres were fully activated by addition of Ca2+ (pCa 4-5) at 10 degrees C. The velocities of contraction were measured in isotonic load clamps, and the velocities of unloaded fibres were measured by(More)
A new method of preparing biological samples for electron microscopy has been used to re-examine the structure of actin filaments, actin filaments decorated by myosin subfragment-1 (S1), and insect flight muscles. Samples were quick-frozen by contact with a block of copper cooled to approximately 4 K; then were freeze-fractured, deep-etched,(More)
A remarkable feature of prion biology is the strain phenomenon wherein prion particles apparently composed of the same protein lead to phenotypically distinct transmissible states. To reconcile the existence of strains with the 'protein-only' hypothesis of prion transmission, it has been proposed that a single protein can misfold into multiple distinct(More)
We have measured the effect of phosphate (Pi) on the tension and maximum shortening velocity of permeable rabbit psoas fibers. Work in a number of laboratories has established that addition of phosphate (0–25 mM) to active muscle fibers at physiological MgATP concentrations decreases isometric tension with little effect on the maximum shortening velocity.(More)
We have explored a model of crossbridge kinetics that explains many of the effects on steady-state muscle contraction of ligands that bind to the nucleotide site on myosin. The mathematical model follows the basic framework for crossbridge function first established by A. F. Huxley. In the model, detached crossbridges initially bind in a weakly Attached,(More)
  • R Cooke
  • 1986
Knowledge of the mechanism of contraction has been obtained from studies of the interaction of actin and myosin in solution, from an elucidation of the structure of muscle fibers, and from measurements of the mechanics and energetics of fiber contraction. Many of the states and the transition rates between them have been established for the hydrolysis of(More)