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Leucine and alpha-ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC) were perfused at increasing concentrations into rat brain hippocampus by microdialysis to mimic the conditions of maple syrup urine disease. The effects of elevated leucine or alpha-KIC on the oxidation of L-[U-14C]glutamate and L-[U-14C]glutamine in the brain were determined in the non-anesthetized rat. 14CO2(More)
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and phenylketonuria (PKU) are associated with accumulation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in blood and tissues and a decrease of other LNAA not directly related to the enzyme defects. One characteristic shared by both the elevated and decreased amino acids is that all are substrates for transport via the large neutral(More)
The sequence of the mRNAs which encode the alpha-subunits of the signal-transducing G-proteins Gs, Go and two forms of Gi (termed Gi1 and Gi2) have recently been reported. Based on rat sequences we prepared oligodeoxynucleotide probes for measurement of these mRNAs in rat brain and peripheral tissues. The relative abundance of these mRNA species in brain(More)
The electrophysiological responses to cholinergic stimulation of four cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1-m4) were studied in A9 L cells transfected with the expression plasmids of each of the different subtypes, using the tight-seal whole-cell recording technique. Cells transfected with m1 and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes were hyperpolarized by(More)
Significantly lower concentrations of norepinephrine were observed in whole brain and hypothalamus of pups exposed to ethanol pre- and post-natally as compared to controls. Dopamine levels were found to be unaltered in whole brain compared to controls although hypothalamus and corpus striatum demonstrated a decreased concentration in the experimental(More)
It has been proposed that hyperammonemia may be associated with valproate therapy. As astrocytes are the primary site of ammonia detoxification in brain, the effects of valproate on glutamate and glutamine metabolism in astrocytes were studied. It is well established that, because of compartmentation of glutamine synthetase, astrocytes are the site of(More)
Metabolic compartmentation of amino acid metabolism in brain is exemplified by the differential synthesis of glutamate and glutamine from the identical precursor and by the localization of the enzyme glutamine synthetase in glial cells. In the current study, we determined if the oxidative metabolism of glutamate and glutamine was also compartmentalized. The(More)