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Infection of macaques with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) provides an excellent in vivo model for examining the influence of envelope on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Infection with a pathogenic CCR5 (R5)-specific enveloped virus, SHIVSF162P, was compared with infection with the CXCR4 (X4)-specific SHIVSF33A.2. Despite comparable levels of viral(More)
A premature action potential elicited in ventricular muscle during the functional refractory period of a preceding action potential requires an increased stimulus intensity for successful propagation. We measured the cellular basis for these relative decreases in tissue excitability during the recovery phase by performing parallel experiments on rabbit left(More)
It is well established that ventricular tissue, under some conditions, exhibits the phenomenon of postrepolarization refractoriness (PRR) in which the tissue excitability is depressed after an action potential. We have done parallel experiments on rabbit papillary muscles and on isolated rabbit ventricular cells to explain the cellular basis of this(More)
In this paper a nearest doubly stochastic matrix problem is studied. This problem is to find the closest doubly stochastic matrix with the prescribed (1, 1) entry to a given matrix. According to the well-established dual theory in optimization, the dual of the underlying problem is an unconstrained differentiable but not twice differentiable convex(More)