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A new organic aerosol module has been implemented into the EMEP chemical transport model. Four different volatility basis set (VBS) schemes have been tested in long-term simulations for Europe, covering the six years 2002–2007. Different assumptions regarding partitioning of primary organic aerosol and aging of primary semi-volatile and intermediate(More)
BACKGROUND Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus) of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces), the main prey of wolves. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We examined(More)
We have addressed the impact of moose (Alces alces L.) on accumulation of secondary metabolites, lignin, and nitrogen in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) along gradients of habitat productivity and solar radiation. The study was conducted within a long-term research project on direct and indirect impacts of moose on the ecosystem. In the experiment,(More)
Apex predators may buffer bottom-up driven ecosystem change, as top-down suppression may dampen herbivore and mesopredator responses to increased resource availability. However, theory suggests that for this buffering capacity to be realized, the equilibrium abundance of apex predators must increase. This raises the question: will apex predators maintain(More)
A major problem within forest industry is unwanted browsing on seedlings from mammalian herbivores. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of birch bark extracts as repellents towards fallow deer. Birch bark was extracted in a conventional way with ethanol as solvent at ambient temperature and with a new method, liquid CO2 extraction. An analysis(More)
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