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The dentate gyrus (DG) of the mammalian hippocampus is hypothesized to mediate pattern separation-the formation of distinct and orthogonal representations of mnemonic information-and also undergoes neurogenesis throughout life. How neurogenesis contributes to hippocampal function is largely unknown. Using adult mice in which hippocampal neurogenesis was(More)
We investigated how dopamine (DA) systems contribute to cognitive performance in the domain of learning and attentional flexibility by examining effects of withdrawing DA-ergic medication in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Medication remediated impairments in switching between two tasks, thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral(More)
Mild cognitive impairment is common in nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and may be a harbinger of dementia. In view of its importance, the Movement Disorder Society commissioned a task force to delineate diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in PD. The proposed diagnostic criteria are based on a literature review and expert(More)
We have previously performed detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments in a community-based cohort of patients with newly diagnosed parkinsonism, and through analysis of a subcohort with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), we have demonstrated that cognitive dysfunction occurs even at the time of PD diagnosis and is heterogeneous. Longitudinal(More)
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common phenomenon in Parkinson's disease (PD) affecting over half of those in the advanced stages of the disease and often does not respond to standard drug therapies. This article proposes a possible mechanism by which this disorder of movement comes about. Co-ordinated neural activities are dependent on a series of parallel(More)
Previous research on cognitive set shifting in patients with Parkinson's disease has often been confounded by concept formation, rule learning, working memory and/or general slowing of cognitive processes. To circumvent this problem, the present study used the task-set switching procedure in which good performance was independent of rule learning, and in(More)
Cognitive abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease, with important social and economic implications. Factors influencing their evolution remain unclear but are crucial to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. We have investigated the development of cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease using a longitudinal approach in(More)
We have used multiple sources to identify a population-representative cohort of newly diagnosed patients with parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in the UK over a 2-year period. All patients have been invited to participate in a detailed clinical assessment either at home or in an outpatient clinic. These assessments have been used to refine clinical(More)
Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only neostriatum projection neurons, and their degeneration underlies some of the clinical features of Huntington's disease. Using knowledge of human developmental biology and exposure to key neurodevelopmental molecules, human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells were induced to differentiate into MSNs. In a feeder-free(More)
The Declarative/Procedural Model of Pinker, Ullman and colleagues claims that the basal ganglia are part of a fronto-striatal procedural memory system which applies grammatical rules to combine morphemes (the smallest meaningful units in language) into complex words (e.g. talk-ed, talk-ing). We tested this claim by investigating whether striatal damage or(More)