Roger B. Hammer

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Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is(More)
Periodic wildfire maintains the integrity and species composition of many ecosystems, including the mediterranean-climate shrublands of California. However, human activities alter natural fire regimes, which can lead to cascading ecological effects. Increased human ignitions at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) have recently gained attention, but fire(More)
In the United States, housing density has substantially increased in and adjacent to forests. Our goal in this study was to identify how housing density and human populations are associated with avian diversity. We compared these associations to those between landscape pattern and avian diversity, and we examined how these associations vary across the(More)
Patterns of association between humans and biodiversity typically show positive, negative, or negative quadratic relationships and can be described by 3 hypotheses: biologically rich areas that support high human population densities co-occur with areas of high biodiversity (productivity); biodiversity decreases monotonically with increasing human(More)
Roads are conspicuous components of landscapes and play a substantial role in defining landscape pattern. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between roads and their effects on ecological processes and landscape patterns. Less understood is the placement of roads, and hence the patterns imposed by roads on the landscape in relation to factors(More)
National-scale analyses of fire occurrence are needed to prioritize fire policy and management activities across the United States. However, the drivers of national-scale patterns of fire occurrence are not well understood, and how the relative importance of human or biophysical factors varies across the country is unclear. Our research goal was to model(More)
October/November 2004 • Journal of Forestry Government agencies, businesses, and communities are concerned about the likelihood of severe wildfire and its threat to people, houses, and natural resources in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). In general terms, the WUI is where houses and fairly dense vegetation are both present. A fine-scale map shows that(More)
Housing growth is prevalent in rural areas in the United States and landscape fragmentation is one of its many effects. Since the 1930s, rural sprawl has been increasing in areas rich in recreational amenities. The question is how housing growth has affected landscape fragmentation. We thus tested three hypotheses relating land cover and land ownership to(More)
Roads remove habitat, alter adjacent areas, and interrupt and redirect ecological flows. They subdivide wildlife populations, foster invasive species spread, change the hydrologic network, and increase human use of adjacent areas. At broad scales, these impacts cumulate and define landscape patterns. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding(More)
Housing growth is a primary form of landscape change that is occurring throughout the world. Because of the ecological impacts of housing growth, understanding the patterns of growth over time is imperative in order to better inform land use planning, natural resource management, and conservation. Our primary goal was to quantify hotspots of housing growth(More)