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We examined how self-regulated learning (SRL) and externally-facilitated self-regulated learning (ERL) differentially affected adolescents' learning about the circulatory system while using hypermedia. A total of 128 middle-school and high school students with little prior knowledge of the topic were randomly assigned to either the SRL or ERL condition.(More)
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Learning about complex and challenging science topics with advanced learning technologies requires students to regulate their learning. The deployment of key cognitive and metacognitive regulatory processes is key to enhancing learning in open-ended learning environments such as hypermedia. In this paper, we propose a metaphor—Computers as MetaCognitive(More)
Self-report data and think-aloud data from 37 undergraduates were used to examine the impact of conceptual scaffolds on self-efficacy, monitoring, and planning during learning with a commercial hypermedia environment. Participants, randomly assigned to either the No Scaffolding (NS) or Conceptual Scaffolding (CS) condition, used a hypermedia environment for(More)
In this paper we investigate the usefulness of eye tracking data for predicting emotions relevant to learning, specifically boredom and curiosity. The data was collected during a study with MetaTutor, an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) designed to promote the use of self-regulated learning strategies. We used a variety of machine learning and feature(More)
In this mixed-method study, we converged product and process data to examine the effectiveness of three human scaffolding conditions in facilitating students' learning about the circulatory system and the deployment of key self-regulatory processes during a 40-minute hypermedia learning task. Undergraduate students (N = 123) were randomly assigned to one of(More)
Co-adapted learning involves complex, dynamically unfolding interactions between human and artificial pedagogical agents (PAs) during learning with intelligent systems. In general, these interactions lead to effective learning when (1) learners correctly monitor and regulate their cognitive and metacogni-tive processes in response to internal (e.g.,(More)