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In this paper, we explore the potential of gaze data as a source of information to predict learning as students interact with MetaTutor, an ITS that scaffolds self-regulated learning. Using data from 47 college students, we show that a classifier using a variety of gaze features achieves considerable accuracy in predicting student learning after seeing gaze(More)
Self-report data and think-aloud data from 37 undergraduates were used to examine the impact of conceptual scaffolds on self-efficacy, monitoring, and planning during learning with a commercial hypermedia environment. Participants, randomly assigned to either the No Scaffolding (NS) or Conceptual Scaffolding (CS) condition, used a hypermedia environment for(More)
Learning about complex and challenging science topics with advanced learning technologies requires students to regulate their learning. The deployment of key cognitive and metacognitive regulatory processes is key to enhancing learning in open-ended learning environments such as hypermedia. In this paper, we propose a metaphor—Computers as MetaCognitive(More)
Identification of student learning behaviors, especially those that characterize or distinguish students, can yield important insights for the design of adaptation and feedback mechanisms in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). In this paper, we analyze trace data to identify distinguishing patterns of behavior in a study of 51 college students learning(More)
Co-adapted learning involves complex, dynamically unfolding interactions between human and artificial pedagogical agents (PAs) during learning with intelligent systems. In general, these interactions lead to effective learning when (1) learners correctly monitor and regulate their cognitive and metacogni-tive processes in response to internal (e.g.,(More)
Previous studies in our laboratory have shown the benefits of immediate feedback on cognitive performance for pathology residents using an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) in pathology. In this study, we examined the effect of immediate feedback on metacognitive performance, and investigated whether other metacognitive scaffolds will support metacognitive(More)