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Cyclic [G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] Is the Metazoan Second Messenger Produced by DNA-Activated Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase
Recent studies identified cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) as a metazoan second messenger triggering an interferon response. cGAMP is generated from GTP and ATP by cytoplasmic dsDNA sensor cGAMP synthaseExpand
Aminoglycoside antibiotics induce bacterial biofilm formation
It is shown that subinhibitory concentrations of aminoglycoside antibiotics induce biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, and the molecular basis of this response includes alterations in the level of c-di-GMP. Expand
Structure-Function Analysis of STING Activation by c[G(2′,5′)pA(3′,5′)p] and Targeting by Antiviral DMXAA
A unique point mutation (S162A) was identified within the cyclic-dinucleotide-binding site of hSTING that rendered it sensitive to the otherwise mouse-specific drug DMXAA, a conclusion validated by binding studies. Expand
Structural basis of HIV-1 resistance to AZT by excision
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) develops resistance to 3′-azido-2′,3′-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) by acquiring mutations in reverse transcriptase that enhance the ATP-mediated excision ofExpand
NMR solution structure of the major G-quadruplex structure formed in the human BCL2 promoter region
The distinct major BCL2 promoter G-quadruplex structure suggests that it can be specifically involved in gene modulation and can be an attractive target for pathway-specific drug design. Expand
A glutamate‐alanine‐leucine (EAL) domain protein of Salmonella controls bacterial survival in mice, antioxidant defence and killing of macrophages: role of cyclic diGMP
Besides its known role in regulating cellulose synthesis and biofilm formation, bacterial c‐diGMP also regulates host–pathogen interactions involving antioxidant defence and cytotoxicity. Expand
An intramolecular G-quadruplex structure with mixed parallel/antiparallel G-strands formed in the human BCL-2 promoter region in solution.
The results demonstrate a novel folding of a unique intramolecular G-quadruplex structure with mixed parallel/antiparallel G-strands that represents an attractive novel target for the design of new anticancer drugs that specifically modulate bcl-2 gene expression. Expand
Structural Basis for the Role of the K65R Mutation in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization, Excision Antagonism, and Tenofovir Resistance*
The guanidinium planes of the arginines K65R and Arg72 were stacked to form a molecular platform that restricts the conformational adaptability of both of the residues, which explains the negative effects of the K 65R mutation on nucleotide incorporation and on excision. Expand
Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus spp. from poultry and dairy farms: detection of virulence and vancomycin resistance gene markers by PCR.
Thirty multidrug-resistant Enterococcus spp. strains, including two from the milk of cows with mastitis, nine from chicken litter and 19 from turkey litter, were isolated. Twenty-five were identifiedExpand
Structures of HIV-1 RT–DNA complexes before and after incorporation of the anti-AIDS drug tenofovir
The crystal structures of two related complexes of HIV-1 RT with template primer and tenofovir are determined: a ternary complex at a resolution of 3.0 Å of RT crosslinked to a dideoxy-terminated DNA with ten ofovir-diphosphate bound as the incoming substrate and a RT–DNA complex at the 3′ primer terminus. Expand