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During the last few years, research on toxicologically relevant properties of engineered nanoparticles has increased tremendously. A number of international research projects and additional activities are ongoing in the EU and the US, nourishing the expectation that more relevant technical and toxicological data will be published. Their widespread use(More)
The epidemiological association between cancer and exposure to ambient air pollution particles (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm (PM(10))) has been related to the ability of PM(10) and its constituent nanoparticles (NPs) to cause reactive oxidative species (ROS)-driven DNA damage. However, there are no data on the molecular(More)
In view of the steadily increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles in various industrial and consumer applications, toxicological investigations to evaluate their safety are highly justified. We have investigated mechanisms of ZnO nanoparticle-induced apoptosis and necrosis in macrophages in relation to their important role in the clearance of inhaled(More)
The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine if chlorine exposure at low levels induces nasal effects in humans as it does in rodents; and 2) to establish a possible occurrence of respiratory effects in human volunteers exposed to chlorine vapour at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 ppm. The study was conducted in a double-blind fashion in 8 male(More)
The world's population is steadily ageing and as a result, health conditions related to ageing, such as dementia, have become a major public health concern. In 2001, it was estimated that there were almost 5 million Europeans suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this figure has been projected to almost double by 2040. About 40% of people over 85(More)
BACKGROUND The etiology and progression of neurodegenerative disorders depends on the interactions between a variety of factors including: aging, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility factors. Enhancement of proinflammatory events appears to be a common link in different neurological impairments, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's(More)
Inflammation has been recognized as an important factor in cancer development. For the lung, experimental studies with rats, as well as molecular epidemiological studies in humans, have provided evidence that the influx of neutrophils into the airways may be an important process linking inflammation with carcinogenesis. Currently it is believed that the(More)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2), also known as titanium (IV) oxide or anatase, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It is also one of the most commercially used form. To date, no parameter has been set for the average ambient air concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) by any regulatory agency. Previously conducted studies had established these(More)
Inflammatory cells and their reactive oxygen metabolites can cause mutagenic effects in lung cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of activated neutrophils to modulate DNA binding of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a known carcinogen, in lung target cells. Equivalent numbers of rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN cell line) and freshly(More)
Respirable quartz has been classified as a human lung carcinogen (IARC, 1997). However, the mechanisms involved in quartz-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate acute DNA damage in epithelial lung cells from rats exposed to quartz. Since surface reactivity is considered to play a crucial role in the toxicity(More)