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BACKGROUND Obesity promotes inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and this is implicated in pathophysiological complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although based on the classical hypothesis, necrotic AT adipocytes (ATA) in obese state activate AT macrophages (ATM) that then lead to a sustained chronic(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Mutations in the ATP7B gene, encoding a copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase, lead to excessive hepatic copper accumulation because of impaired biliary copper excretion in Wilson's disease. In human liver, ATP7B is predominantly localized to the trans-Golgi network, which appears incompatible with a role of ATP7B in biliary(More)
Bile acid synthesis, determined by conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids in rat and human hepatocytes and by measurement of mass production of bile acids in rat hepatocytes, was dose-dependently decreased by cyclosporin A, with 52% (rat) and 45% (human) inhibition of 10 microM. The decreased bile acid production in rat hepatocytes was due only to(More)
BACKGROUND Resistant starch sources, which are only partially digested in the small intestine, can be used to increase colonic availability of short-chain fatty acids. OBJECTIVE To study the characteristics of the fermentation of resistant starch, the digestion of resistant starch in the small intestine has to be quantified. We compared the metabolic(More)
Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) time of flight (TOF) is a mass spectrometry technology for measuring the composition of a sampled protein mixture. A mass spectrum contains peaks corresponding to proteins in the sample. The peak areas are proportional to the measured concentrations of the corresponding proteins. Quantifying peak areas is(More)
Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete(More)
AIMS Colonic metabolism of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance. We investigated whether a 2-week supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum (in capsules) and a yogurt enriched with Bifidobacterium animalis could modify the composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microbiota in 11 Chinese lactose-intolerant subjects. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. OBJECTIVES To asses the effects of whole-grain foods for the prevention of T2DM. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched(More)
Biliary secretion of 3 alpha-sulfated bile acids has been studied in Wistar rats with an autosomal recessive defect in the hepatic transport of bilirubin. Liver function, established by measurement of various enzymes in plasma, by enzyme histochemical methods, and by electron microscopy, appeared to be normal in these rats. Serum levels of unconjugated,(More)
BACKGROUND Evening meals that are rich in nondigestible carbohydrates have been shown to lower postprandial glucose concentrations after ingestion of high-glycemic-index breakfasts. This phenomenon is linked to colonic fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates, but the underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE We examined the way in which(More)