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Neuronal circuitry is often considered a clean slate that can be dynamically and arbitrarily molded by experience. However, when we investigated synaptic connectivity in groups of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex, we found that both connectivity and synaptic weights were surprisingly predictable. Synaptic weights follow very closely the number of(More)
The electrochemical processes that underlie neural function manifest themselves in ceaseless spatiotemporal field fluctuations. However, extracellular fields feed back onto the electric potential across the neuronal membrane via ephaptic coupling, independent of synapses. The extent to which such ephaptic coupling alters the functioning of neurons under(More)
UNLABELLED We present a first-draft digital reconstruction of the microcircuitry of somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The reconstruction uses cellular and synaptic organizing principles to algorithmically reconstruct detailed anatomy and physiology from sparse experimental data. An objective anatomical method defines a neocortical volume of 0.29 ± 0.01(More)
A study was carried out in northeastern Italy during 2000 and 2001 to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in animals, cattle, pigs, and broilers, and raw meat, beef, pork, and chicken. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 53.9% of the cattle, 63.5% of the pigs, and 82.9% of the broilers examined. Chicken meat was(More)
Brain activity generates extracellular voltage fluctuations recorded as local field potentials (LFPs). It is known that the relevant microvariables, the ionic currents across membranes, jointly generate the macrovariables, the extracellular voltage, but neither the detailed biophysical knowledge nor the required computational power have been available to(More)
Inhibitory pathways are an essential component in the function of the neocortical microcircuitry. Despite the relatively small fraction of inhibitory neurons in the neocortex, these neurons are strongly activated due to their high connectivity rate and the intricate manner in which they interconnect with pyramidal cells (PCs). One prominent pathway is the(More)
The general structure of the mammalian neocortex is remarkably similar across different cortical areas. Despite certain cytoarchitectural specializations and deviations from the general blueprint, the principal organization of the neocortex is relatively uniform. It is not known, however, to what extent stereotypic synaptic pathways resemble each other(More)
Despite decades of extracellular action potential (EAP) recordings monitoring brain activity, the biophysical origin and inherent variability of these signals remain enigmatic. We performed whole cell patch recordings of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in rat somatosensory cortex slice while positioning a silicon probe in their vicinity to concurrently(More)
The organization of connectivity in neuronal networks is fundamental to understanding the activity and function of neural networks and information processing in the brain. Recent studies show that the neocortex is not only organized in columns and layers but also, within these, into synaptically connected clusters of neurons (Ko et al., 2011; Perin et al.,(More)
percepts or thoughts are the result of activation of interlinked assemblies in sequences that are also molded by experience. These ideas have profoundly influenced philosophy , psychology and neuroscience for more than 60 years. As a consequence artificial neural networks have been constructed on the assumption that the initial network is a clean slate.(More)