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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Reduced glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) is the prevalent low-molecular-weight thiol in mammalian cells. It is formed in a two-step enzymatic process including, first, the formation of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine, by the activity of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; and second, the formation of GSH by the(More)
Cancer is a multistage and complex process characterized by molecular alterations that underlie all three phases of its development: (i) initiation, (ii) promotion and (iii) progression. Some of these molecular events include alterations in gene expression that are regulated by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. On the other hand, "oxidative stress"(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, which has been widely associated with oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms by which redox signaling regulates cell death progression remain elusive. RECENT ADVANCES Early studies demonstrated that depletion of(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Glutathione (GSH) depletion is a central signaling event that regulates the activation of cell death pathways. GSH depletion is often taken as a marker of oxidative stress and thus, as a consequence of its antioxidant properties scavenging reactive species of both oxygen and nitrogen (ROS/RNS). RECENT ADVANCES There is increasing evidence(More)
Changes in the intracellular redox environment of cells have been reported to be critical for the activation of apoptotic enzymes and the progression of programmed cell death. Glutathione (GSH) depletion is an early hallmark observed in apoptosis, and we have demonstrated that GSH efflux during death receptor-mediated apoptosis occurs via a GSH transporter.(More)
Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the(More)
The loss of dopaminergic neurons induced by the parkinsonian toxins paraquat, rotenone, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is associated with oxidative stress. However, controversial reports exist regarding the source/compartmentalization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and its exact role in cell death. We aimed to determine in detail the(More)
Recent studies suggest that traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pesticide exposure increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Using an in vitro model of TBI, we evaluated the role of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by stretch on dopaminergic(More)
Apoptosis is a conserved homeostatic process critical for organ and tissue morphogenesis, development, and senescence. This form of programmed cell death also participates in the etiology of several human diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative, and autoimmune disorders. Although the signaling pathways leading to the progression of apoptosis have been(More)