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The one-step gene disruption techniques described here are versatile in that a disruption can be made simply by the appropriate cloning experiment. The resultant chromosomal insertion is nonreverting and contains a genetically linked marker. Detailed knowledge of the restriction map of a fragment is not necessary. It is even possible to "probe" a fragment(More)
Gene conversion is the nonreciprocal transfer of information from one DNA duplex to another; in meiosis, it is frequently associated with crossing-over. We review the genetic properties of meiotic recombination and previous models of conversion and crossing-over. In these models, recombination is initiated by single-strand nicks, and heteroduplex DNA is(More)
We have examined the effect of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription on recombination between directly repeated sequences of the GAL10 gene in S. cerevisiae. Direct repeat recombination leading either to plasmid loss or conversion was examined in isogenic strains containing null mutations in the positive activator, GAL4, or the repressor, GAL80. A(More)
The methods described in this chapter permit the manipulation of virtually any cloned yeast chromosomal sequence by virtue of the fact that DNA transformed into yeast integrates into the chromosome by homologous recombination. Furthermore, double-strand breaks in transforming DNA stimulate recombination and can be used to target integration events. This(More)
DNA repair is an essential process for preserving genome integrity in all organisms. In eukaryotes, recombinational repair is choreographed by multiprotein complexes that are organized into centers (foci). Here, we analyze the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and replication stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mre11 nuclease and the(More)
We have previously shown that cells mutant for TOP3, a gene encoding a prokaryotic-like type I topoisomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, display a pleiotropic phenotype including slow growth and genome instability. We identified a mutation, sgs1 (slow growth suppressor), that suppresses both the growth defect and the increased genomic instability of top3(More)
DNA molecules that integrate into yeast chromosomes during yeast transformation do so by homologous recombination. We have studied the way in which circular and linear molecules recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences. We show that DNA ends are highly recombinogenic and interact directly with homologous sequences. Circular hybrid plasmids can(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MEC1 and RAD53 are essential for cell growth and checkpoint function. Their essential role in growth can be bypassed by deletion of a novel gene, SML1, which functions after several genes whose overexpression also suppresses mec1 inviability. In addition, sml1 affects various cellular processes analogous to overproducing the(More)
An open question in meiosis is whether the Rad51 recombination protein functions solely in meiotic recombination or whether it is also involved in the chromosome homology search. To address this question, we have performed three-dimensional high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize native Rad51 structures in maize male meiocytes. Maize has(More)
The Holliday junction recombination intermediate, an X-shaped DNA molecule (xDNA), was analyzed at rDNA in mitotically growing yeast. In wild-type cells, xDNA is only detected at S phase, suggesting that recombination is stimulated to repair replication-related lesions. A search for mutations that increase the level of xDNA uncovered a gene encoding a(More)