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DNA repair is an essential process for preserving genome integrity in all organisms. In eukaryotes, recombinational repair is choreographed by multiprotein complexes that are organized into centers (foci). Here, we analyze the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and replication stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mre11 nuclease and the(More)
We have examined the effect of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription on recombination between directly repeated sequences of the GAL10 gene in S. cerevisiae. Direct repeat recombination leading either to plasmid loss or conversion was examined in isogenic strains containing null mutations in the positive activator, GAL4, or the repressor, GAL80. A(More)
The methods described in this chapter permit the manipulation of virtually any cloned yeast chromosomal sequence by virtue of the fact that DNA transformed into yeast integrates into the chromosome by homologous recombination. Furthermore, double-strand breaks in transforming DNA stimulate recombination and can be used to target integration events. This(More)
We have previously shown that cells mutant for TOP3, a gene encoding a prokaryotic-like type I topoisomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, display a pleiotropic phenotype including slow growth and genome instability. We identified a mutation, sgs1 (slow growth suppressor), that suppresses both the growth defect and the increased genomic instability of top3(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MEC1 and RAD53 are essential for cell growth and checkpoint function. Their essential role in growth can be bypassed by deletion of a novel gene, SML1, which functions after several genes whose overexpression also suppresses mec1 inviability. In addition, sml1 affects various cellular processes analogous to overproducing the(More)
Cell cycle checkpoints are evolutionarily conserved surveillance systems that protect genomic stability and prevent oncogenesis in mammals. One important target of checkpoint control is ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP and DNA synthesis. In both yeast and humans, RNR is transcriptionally induced after DNA damage(More)
DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) is an essential process for preserving genomic integrity in all organisms. To investigate this process at the cellular level, we engineered a system of fluorescently marked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to visualize in vivo DSBR in single cells. Using this system, we demonstrate(More)
The Holliday junction recombination intermediate, an X-shaped DNA molecule (xDNA), was analyzed at rDNA in mitotically growing yeast. In wild-type cells, xDNA is only detected at S phase, suggesting that recombination is stimulated to repair replication-related lesions. A search for mutations that increase the level of xDNA uncovered a gene encoding a(More)
An open question in meiosis is whether the Rad51 recombination protein functions solely in meiotic recombination or whether it is also involved in the chromosome homology search. To address this question, we have performed three-dimensional high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize native Rad51 structures in maize male meiocytes. Maize has(More)
Vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) employs a cycle of GTP binding and hydrolysis to regulate assembly of the COPII coat. We have identified a novel mutation (sec24-m11) in the cargo-binding subunit, Sec24p, that specifically impacts the GTP-dependent generation of vesicles in vitro. Using a high-throughput approach, we defined genetic(More)