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Endo-parasites that affect humans include Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, which remains one of the leading causes of death in human beings. Despite decades of research, vaccines to this and other endo-parasites remain elusive. This is in part due to the hyper-variability of the parasites surface proteins. Generally these surface proteins are(More)
The dung beetle, Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is an important ecological and agricultural agent. Their main activity, the burying of dung, improves quality of the soil and reduces pests that could cause illness in animals. E. intermedius are therefore important for agriculture and for good maintenance of the environment, and(More)
The behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk during fermentation with starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria was investigated. Pasteurized milk was co-inoculated with approximately 10(4) CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes and 10(6) CFU/ml of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus cremoris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, or(More)
Ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) confer diverse functions on their target proteins. The modified proteins are involved in various biological processes, including DNA replication, signal transduction, cell cycle control, embryogenesis, cytoskeletal regulation, metabolism, stress response, homeostasis and mRNA processing. Modifiers such as SUMO, ATG12, ISG15,(More)
HIV has posed a significant challenge due to the ability of the virus to both impair and evade the host's immune system. One of the most important mechanisms it has employed to do so is the modulation of the host's native apoptotic pathways and mechanisms. Viral proteins alter normal apoptotic signaling resulting in increased viral load and the formation of(More)
UNLABELLED The dung beetle E. intermedius, a member of the highly diverse order, Coleoptera has immense economic benefits. It was estimated that insect ecological services in the United States amounted to some $60 billion in 2006 with dung beetles being major contributors. E. intermedius may be endowed with a robust immune system given its microbe-rich(More)
Apoptosis is normally kept under strict control by a range of regulators and inhibitors, and loss of this regulation strongly directs tumour progression. The novel RBBP6 gene has been implicated in apoptosis due to its ability to bind both p53 and Rb, as well as its structural and functional affiliation to ubiquitin and E3 ligases. RBBP6 has already been(More)
HIV-1 is able to express multiple protein types and isoforms from a single 9 kb mRNA transcript. These proteins are also expressed at particular stages of viral development, and this is achieved through the control of alternative splicing and the export of these transcripts from the nucleus. The nuclear export is controlled by the HIV protein Rev being(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that regulate pathophysiological processes that suppress gene expression by binding to messenger RNAs. These biomolecules can be used to study gene regulation and protein expression, which will allow better understanding of many biological processes such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis that control the(More)
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and second only to cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is a challenge in African countries because generally there is limited funding available to deal with the cancer epidemic and awareness and this should be prioritised and all possible resources should be utilized to prevent and treat cancer. The(More)