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The NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor plays an important role in the molecular mechanisms of learning, memory and excitotoxicity. NMDA receptors are highly permeable to calcium, which can lead to the activation of the calcium-dependent protease, calpain. In the present study, the ability of calpain to modulate NMDA receptor function through direct(More)
The NMDA receptor is an important target for drug development, with agents from many different classes acting on this receptor. While the severe side effects associated with complete NMDA receptor blockade have limited clinical usefulness of most antagonists, the understanding of the multiple forms of NMDA receptors provides an opportunity for development(More)
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a calcium-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the posttranslational modification of proteins by transamidation of specific polypeptide-bound glutamine residues. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that the transamidating activity of tTG requires calcium and is inhibited by GTP. To investigate the endogenous regulation of(More)
We used ligand binding to ascertain whether the pharmacological actions of RO 25-6981 [(R:(*), S:(*))-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperidinepropanol] match those of other NR2B (epsilon2) subunit specific agents. RO 25-6981 inhibited binding of 125I-MK801 [iodo-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohept-5,10-imine maleate](More)
Since excitotoxicity has been implicated in a variety of neuropathological conditions, understanding the pathways involved in this type of cell death is of critical importance to the future clinical treatment of many diseases. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has become a primary focus of excitotoxic research because early studies demonstrated that(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are calcium-permeable glutamate receptors that play putative roles in learning, memory, and excitotoxicity. NMDA receptor-mediated calcium entry can activate the calcium-dependent protease calpain, leading to substrate degradation. The major NMDA receptor 2 (NR2) subunits of the receptor are in vitro substrates for(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by fibrillary neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies (LBs) consisting largely of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn), the protein mutated in some patients with familial PD. The mechanisms of alpha-syn fibrillization and LB formation are unknown, but may involve aberrant degradation or turnover. We examined the ability of(More)
Although activation of calcium-activated neutral protease (calpain) by the NMDA receptor has been suggested to play critical roles in synaptic modulation and neurologic disease, the nature of its substrates has not been completely defined. In this study, we examined the ability of calpain to cleave the NMDA receptor in cultured hippocampal neurons.(More)
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a calcium-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the transamidation of specific polypeptide-bound glutamine residues, a reaction that is inhibited by GTP. There is also preliminary evidence that, in situ, calpain and GTP may regulate tTG indirectly by modulating its turnover by the calcium-activated protease calpain. In the present(More)
Cells transfected with specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtypes undergo cell death that mimics glutamate-induced excitotoxicity pharmacologically. We have further characterized the mechanisms of cell death resulting from NMDA receptor activation in such cells through development of cell counting methods based on co-transfection with green(More)