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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been linked to inflammation-related disease processes in the human host, including vascular diseases and chronic transplant rejection. The mechanisms through which CMV affects the pathogenesis of these diseases are for the most part unknown. To study the contributing role of the host immune response to CMV in these(More)
BACKGROUND Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 3G (APOBEC3G) protein is incorporated into nascent virus particles and mediates cytidine deamination (C-to-U) of first-strand reverse transcripts of HIV-1 in target cells resulting in G-to-A hypermutation of the coding strand and premature degradation. We investigated the effects of APOBEC3G(More)
Initiation of a primary immune response requires antigen specific CD4(+) T helper (T(h)) cells to assist in priming of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) activity. This is optimal when T(h) cells and CTL recognize antigen when presented to them by a dendritic cell (DC) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II complexes. We(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been linked to inflammatory diseases that involve vascular endothelial damage, including vascular disease and chronic transplant rejection. We previously reported that the host CD4(+) T-cell response to CMV antigen presented by endothelial cells can produce interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha at levels(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles on HIV-1-related disease progression and central nervous system (CNS) impairment in children. DESIGN Five hundred seventy-two HIV-1-infected children, identified as disease progressors or nonprogressors, were selected from PACTG P152 and P300 through a case-cohort sampling scheme.(More)
Rhesus monkeys immunized intramuscularly or orally with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) toxoid or SEB toxoid incorporated in microspheres made of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) were challenged with a lethal dose of aerosolized SEB to study their immunity and cellular responses in the circulation. It was found that circulating antibodies play a critical(More)
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) toxoid-containing microspheres were tested for efficacy in rhesus monkeys as a vaccine candidate for respiratory SEB toxicosis and toxic shock. Forty monkeys were randomly separated into 10 groups of four monkeys each: 9 groups were vaccinated with the microspheres via combinations of mucosal and nonmucosal routes, and 1(More)
BACKGROUND HLA class I molecules are ligands for killer cell immunoglobin like receptors (KIR) that control the antiviral response of natural killer (NK) cells. However, the effects of KIR and HLA (KIR/HLA) alleles on HIV disease of children have not been studied. METHODS 993 antiretroviral naïve children with symptomatic HIV infection from PACTG(More)
HIV/CMV co-infected persons despite prolonged viral suppression often experience persistent immune activation, have an increased frequency of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined how HIV MDSC control CD4+ T cell IFNγ response to a CMVpp65 peptide pool (CMVpp65). We show that HIV/CMV(More)
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