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A large body of data indicates that (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can damage brain serotonin neurons in animals. However, the relevance of these preclinical data to humans is uncertain, because doses and routes of administration used in animals have generally differed from those used by humans. Here, we examined the(More)
There has been increasing recognition of the problem of fatal opioid overdose. This review examines the pharmacological basis of respiratory depression following opioid administration. Respiration is controlled principally through medullary respiratory centres with peripheral input from chemoreceptors and other sources. Opioids produce inhibition at the(More)
AIMS To improve our understanding of the pharmacology of 'ecstasy' in recreational environments; in particular, to describe the composition of ecstasy pills, patterns of ecstasy use and the relationship between dose of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and resulting plasma concentrations. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A naturalistic observational(More)
RATIONALE 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") disrupts thermoregulation in rats and can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia in humans. MDMA administration can also lead to long-term neurotoxicity in animals and possibly humans. OBJECTIVES The purpose of the current study was to extend previous results on the acute effects of MDMA on(More)
The binding affinity to the mu receptor of some opioids chemically related to morphine and some of their metabolites was examined in rat brain homogenates with 3H-DAMGO. The chemical group at position 6 of the molecule had little effect on binding (e.g. morphine-6-glucuronide Ki = 0.6 nM; morphine = 1.2 nM). Decreasing the length of the alkyl group at(More)
We have recently demonstrated that co-administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") with the reversible monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) inhibitor moclobemide at an ambient temperature of 22 degrees C significantly increases striatal 5-HT outflow and 5-HT-mediated behaviors. In the present study, using microdialysis, we examined the(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") and para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) are commonly used recreational drugs. PMA, often mistaken for MDMA, is reported to be more toxic in human use than MDMA. Both of these drugs have been shown to facilitate the release and prevent the reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). PMA is also a potent(More)
Anabolic steroid abuse has been associated with thrombosis and arteriosclerosis, both of which predispose to myocardial ischemia and infarction. However, there are reports of sudden cardiac death in the absence of thrombus and atheroma following anabolic steroid use. Although treatment with the commonly abused steroid, nandrolone, has been shown to decrease(More)
1. This study was prompted by recent deaths that have occurred after recreational administration of the substituted amphetamine para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). Because relatively little is known regarding its mechanism(s) of action, its effects on physiological, behavioural and neurochemical parameters were compared with the well known effects of(More)
RATIONALE Cocaine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) disrupt normal thermoregulation in humans, with PMA being associated with more severe cases of hyperthermia. Harm minimization advice on how to prevent overheating depends on appropriate thermoregulatory behavior by drug users. (More)