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A large body of data indicates that (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can damage brain serotonin neurons in animals. However, the relevance of these preclinical data to humans is uncertain, because doses and routes of administration used in animals have generally differed from those used by humans. Here, we examined the(More)
There has been increasing recognition of the problem of fatal opioid overdose. This review examines the pharmacological basis of respiratory depression following opioid administration. Respiration is controlled principally through medullary respiratory centres with peripheral input from chemoreceptors and other sources. Opioids produce inhibition at the(More)
AIMS To improve our understanding of the pharmacology of 'ecstasy' in recreational environments; in particular, to describe the composition of ecstasy pills, patterns of ecstasy use and the relationship between dose of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and resulting plasma concentrations. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A naturalistic observational(More)
Morphine maintenance doses of 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and 30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) were administered to three groups of rats via miniosmotic pumps for 7 days to induce physical dependence. They were then allowed to undergo spontaneous withdrawal. Radiotelemetric blood pressure measurements showed that morphine increased systolic and diastolic(More)
RATIONALE 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") disrupts thermoregulation in rats and can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia in humans. MDMA administration can also lead to long-term neurotoxicity in animals and possibly humans. OBJECTIVES The purpose of the current study was to extend previous results on the acute effects of MDMA on(More)
Accurate information on drug use in communities is essential if health, social and economic harms associated with illicit drug use are to be addressed efficiently. In most countries population drug use is estimated indirectly via surveys, medical presentations and police and custom seizures. All of these methods have at least some problems due to bias,(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical features of paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA; "death") poisoning and to compare these with those of people with self-reported "ecstasy" poisoning. DESIGN Retrospective casenote review. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING 22 patients who presented to the Emergency Department of the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH), a major metropolitan(More)
Factors which influence uptake on O-methylation of 3H-isoprenaline (3HISO) by isolated segments of the rabbit ear artery were investigated. The tendency of the artery to accumulate unchanged amine was enhanced either when the O-methylation of ISO approached saturation at a high substrate concentration (6 mumol 1(-1) ISO), or when O-methylation was(More)
The binding affinity to the mu receptor of some opioids chemically related to morphine and some of their metabolites was examined in rat brain homogenates with 3H-DAMGO. The chemical group at position 6 of the molecule had little effect on binding (e.g. morphine-6-glucuronide Ki = 0.6 nM; morphine = 1.2 nM). Decreasing the length of the alkyl group at(More)
We examined the influence of procedures used in blood pressure measurement on blood pressure and the effects of antihypertensive agents. Subjects were spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their Wistar/Kyoto (WKY) controls. Blood pressure was recorded by telemetry. Twenty-four h baseline pressure were measured, and the effect of minor handling on blood(More)