Rodney James Irvine

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A large body of data indicates that (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can damage brain serotonin neurons in animals. However, the relevance of these preclinical data to humans is uncertain, because doses and routes of administration used in animals have generally differed from those used by humans. Here, we examined the(More)
AIMS To improve our understanding of the pharmacology of 'ecstasy' in recreational environments; in particular, to describe the composition of ecstasy pills, patterns of ecstasy use and the relationship between dose of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and resulting plasma concentrations. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A naturalistic observational(More)
There has been increasing recognition of the problem of fatal opioid overdose. This review examines the pharmacological basis of respiratory depression following opioid administration. Respiration is controlled principally through medullary respiratory centres with peripheral input from chemoreceptors and other sources. Opioids produce inhibition at the(More)
The increasing use of (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the setting of large dance parties ('raves') and clubs has been the source of some concern, because of potential acute adverse events, and because animal studies suggest that MDMA has the potential to damage brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons. However, it is not yet known whether MDMA, as(More)
1. This study was prompted by recent deaths that have occurred after recreational administration of the substituted amphetamine para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA). Because relatively little is known regarding its mechanism(s) of action, its effects on physiological, behavioural and neurochemical parameters were compared with the well known effects of(More)
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") and para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) are commonly used recreational drugs. PMA, often mistaken for MDMA, is reported to be more toxic in human use than MDMA. Both of these drugs have been shown to facilitate the release and prevent the reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). PMA is also a potent(More)
The binding affinity to the mu receptor of some opioids chemically related to morphine and some of their metabolites was examined in rat brain homogenates with 3H-DAMGO. The chemical group at position 6 of the molecule had little effect on binding (e.g. morphine-6-glucuronide Ki = 0.6 nM; morphine = 1.2 nM). Decreasing the length of the alkyl group at(More)
Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is the third most used illicit drug, after cannabis and amphetamines. There has been considerable interest in the adverse effects of use, with particular attention given to a small number of deaths related to ecstasy use, and the neurotoxic effects of MDMA. This paper reviews case reports of adverse effects(More)
Morphine maintenance doses of 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1), 20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and 30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) were administered to three groups of rats via miniosmotic pumps for 7 days to induce physical dependence. They were then allowed to undergo spontaneous withdrawal. Radiotelemetric blood pressure measurements showed that morphine increased systolic and diastolic(More)
The O-demethylation of codeine to morphine was demonstrated in rat brain homogenate. Maximal formation occurred at 10 minutes, with a Vmax of 5.93 +/- 0.16 nmol/g brain/h and Km of 37.82 +/- 4.99 microM. The formation was significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in the microvessel-rich brain fraction. Intraperitoneal injection of codeine in the rat resulted(More)