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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
We have crystallized and subsequently determined to 2.0-A resolution the crystal structure of eqFP611, a far red fluorescent protein from the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor. The structure of the protomer, which adopts a beta-can topology, is similar to that of the related monomeric green fluorescent protein (GFP). The quaternary structure of eqFP611, a(More)
Loss of the MDM38 gene product in yeast mitochondria results in a variety of phenotypic effects including reduced content of respiratory chain complexes, altered mitochondrial morphology and loss of mitochondrial K(+)/H(+) exchange activity resulting in osmotic swelling. By use of doxycycline-regulated shut-off of MDM38 gene expression, we show here that(More)
The term microautophagy was first used in 1966 by de Duve and Wattiaux and subsequently applied, over the following two decades, to processes described in mammalian cells and involving the presence of lysosome-like organelles having multiple vesicles trapped in their lumen ("multivesicular lysosomes"). Concurrently, many studies suggested a view of(More)
The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a convenient system for coupling heterologous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the pheromone response pathway to facilitate empirical ligand screening and/or GPCR mutagenesis studies. However, few studies have applied this system to define GPCR-G protein-coupling preferences and furnish information on(More)
The degradation of cytoplasmic contents, especially organelles [mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex (GC)], cannot be accomplished solely by the cytosolic degradation machinery, of which the most prominent component is the proteasome. However, it is possible that such organelles (or portions thereof) can be degraded by the(More)
We have determined the crystal structure of HcRed, a far-red fluorescent protein isolated from Heteractis crispa, to 2.1A resolution. HcRed was observed to form a dimer, in contrast to the monomeric form of green fluorescent protein (GFP) or the tetrameric forms of the GFP-like proteins (eqFP611, Rtms5 and DsRed). Unlike the well-defined chromophore(More)
The conjugative tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3 is the paradigm conjugative plasmid in the anaerobic gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens. Two closely related FtsK/SpoIIIE homologs, TcpA and TcpB, are encoded on pCW3, which is significant since FtsK domains are found in coupling proteins of gram-negative conjugation systems. To develop an(More)