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SETTING National household survey of adults in South Africa, a middle income country. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and predictors of chronic bronchitis. DESIGN A stratified national probability sample of households was selected. All adults in the selected households were interviewed. Chronic bronchitis was defined as chronic productive cough.(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood asthma is believed to be a serious problem in Cape Town, South Africa. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and reliability of asthma symptoms and reported asthma in Cape Town schoolchildren aged mainly 7 and 8 years, and to assess underdiagnosis. METHOD A questionnaire was completed by parents of 1955 children, followed by 620(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the human health risk associated with fish consumption in a contaminated area downstream from a mercury processing plant in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study population consisted of fish consumers living in close proximity to the u'Mgeni River and the Inanda Dam downstream from the plant. A control group was(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV incidence, mortality, and the progression of silicosis and lung function impairment are described over a 1-year period in migrant ex-gold miners from Lesotho. METHODS Seven hundred seventy-nine Basotho miners were followed for 1 year starting 18 months after lay-off from a South African gold mine in 1998. At(More)
Effects of temperatures ranging from -40 to 49 C on the behavior of airborne Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis var. niger were investigated. Aerosol decay rates of B. subtilis spores were not significantly affected by the temperature and remained approximately constant within the temperature range studied. The survival of airborne(More)
To determine the most important sources of environmental tobacco smoke exposure to young children, the authors studied the associations among urinary cotinine, reported household smoking habits, and socioeconomic variables in 575 schoolchildren aged 6-11 y. The school children were among a population of prodigious smokers in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty(More)
SETTING Adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics affiliated to the University of Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of tuberculosis on HIV-1 disease progression in an area with high tuberculosis prevalence and minimal antiretroviral therapy use. DESIGN Prospective patient cohort study. METHODS Age, race, risk status, CD4+(More)
The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease in children has been increasing in developed countries, but there is little information on these trends in Africa. The aim of this study was to assess time trends in the symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic eczema among South African adolescents. The study was carried out by comparing(More)
SETTING This study was conducted in a high tuberculosis (TB) burden area in Worcester, South Africa, with a notified all TB incidence rate of 1,400/100,000. MAIN OBJECTIVE To compare the predictive value of a baseline tuberculin skin test (TST) with that of the QuantiFERON TB Gold (In-tube) assay (QFT) for subsequent microbiologically confirmed TB disease(More)
Environmental factors are known to influence the development of allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in genetically susceptible individuals. Socioeconomic status (SES) may be an important indicator of risk for these conditions. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 1 written questionnaire was used to determine the(More)