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The gene encoding the large conductance mechanosensitive ion channel (MscL) of Escherichia coli and several deletion mutants of mscL were cloned under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. Transformation of these constructs into an E. coli strain carrying an inducible T7 RNA polymerase gene allowed the specific production and labelling of MscL with(More)
Human monomorphic and polymorphic arylamine acetyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.5) were expressed in monkey kidney COS-1 cells and used to study the N- and O-acetylation of a number of carcinogenic amines and their N-hydroxy metabolites. The monomorphic enzyme N-acetylated the aromatic amines, 2-aminofluorene and 4-aminobiphenyl, and also O-acetylated their(More)
Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on(More)
The food-borne mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induces tumors in colon of male rats and has been implicated in the etiology of human cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to examine: (1) the biliary and/or circulatory transport of N-hydroxy-PhIP and its N-glucuronides, N-sulfonyloxy-PhIP and(More)
Many drugs and chemicals found in the environment are either detoxified by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1, EC 2.3.1.5) and eliminated from the body or bioactivated to metabolites that have the potential to cause toxicity and/or cancer. NAT1 activity in the body is regulated by genetic polymorphisms as well as environmental factors such as substrate-dependent(More)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferase I (NAT1) is a phase II enzyme that acetylates a wide range of arylamine and hydrazine substrates. The NAT1 gene is located on chromosome 8 and shares homology to NAT genes found in most mammalian species. Gene expression occurs from at least two promoters and a number of tissue-specific transcripts have been identified. The(More)
The open channel diameter of Escherichia coli recombinant large-conductance mechanosensitive ion channels (MscL) was estimated using the model of Hille (Hille, B. 1968. Pharmacological modifications of the sodium channels of frog nerve. J. Gen. Physiol. 51:199-219) that relates the pore size to conductance. Based on the MscL conductance of 3.8 nS, and(More)
Recent clinical trials have shown that for some cancers, high-intensity alternating chemotherapy does not significantly improve either survival times or response rates compared with nonalternating therapy. The current study uses optimal control to determine the best way to treat a tumor that contains drug-resistant cells that cannot be destroyed. The(More)
The chemical composition, size, shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles affect the way proteins bind to these particles, and this in turn influences the way in which nanoparticles interact with cells and tissues. Nanomaterials bound with proteins can result in physiological and pathological changes, including macrophage uptake, blood coagulation,(More)
Changes in consensus arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) gene nomenclature determined at the 2007 International NAT Workshop include: (1) Alleles in all species except mouse and rat are all uppercase. For mouse and rat, the first letter is upper case followed by lower case. (2) The nomenclature system is now species-specific. Thus, NAT2(*)1 (chicken),(More)