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Ecological risk assessors face increasing demands to assess more chemicals, with greater speed and accuracy, and to do so using fewer resources and experimental animals. New approaches in biological and computational sciences may be able to generate mechanistic information that could help in meeting these challenges. However, to use mechanistic data to(More)
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly those that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis of vertebrates, have become a focus of regulatory screening and testing throughout the world. Small fish species, principally the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), and zebrafish (Danio rerio), are used as(More)
Ketoconazole (KTC) is a model pharmaceutical representing imidazole and triazole pesticides, which inhibit fungal growth through blocking a cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated step in ergosterol biosynthesis. Several of these fungicides have been shown to be reversible inhibitors of CYPs in vertebrates (primarily mammals), including CYP isoforms involved in the(More)
Trenbolone is an androgen agonist used in cattle production and has been measured in aquatic systems associated with concentrated animal-feeding operations. In this study, the authors characterized the effects of aqueous exposure to 17β-trenbolone during larval Xenopus tropicalis development. Trenbolone exposure resulted in increased mortality of(More)
Conazoles are designed to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 14α-demethylase, an enzyme key to fungal cell wall formation. In vertebrates, conazoles may inhibit other CYPs, potentially disrupting processes like sex steroid synthesis. Propiconazole is a current-use pesticide that is among the first chemicals being tested in the U.S. Environmental Protection(More)
Small aquarium fishes are increasingly used as animal models, and one of these, the Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes), is frequently utilized for toxicity testing. While these vertebrates have many similarities with their terrestrial counterparts, there are differences that must be considered if these organisms are to be used to their highest potential.(More)
Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion regarding lesion interpretation, we propose specific criteria for distinguishing(More)
Samples of sediment and biota were collected from sites in the lower Fox River and southern Green Bay to determine existing or potential impacts of sediment-associated contaminants on different ecosystem components of this Great Lakes area of concern. Evaluation of benthos revealed a relatively depauperate community, particularly at the lower Fox River(More)
An important endpoint in aquatic bioassays for potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is the gonadal phenotype of exposed fish, with special interest in intersex and sex-reversed individuals. Traditionally, the assessment of gonad phenotype is done via histology, which involves specialized and time-consuming techniques. The method detailed here(More)
Histologic assessment of the gonads to detect intersex has become a valuable end point in reproductive toxicologic testing for fish, and many studies have solidly linked intersex with exposure to endocrine active substances (EAS). An assumption in such studies is that spontaneous intersex does not occur in control fish. Using historical data derived from(More)