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Ecological risk assessors face increasing demands to assess more chemicals, with greater speed and accuracy, and to do so using fewer resources and experimental animals. New approaches in biological and computational sciences may be able to generate mechanistic information that could help in meeting these challenges. However, to use mechanistic data to(More)
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly those that affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis of vertebrates, have become a focus of regulatory screening and testing throughout the world. Small fish species, principally the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), and zebrafish (Danio rerio), are used as(More)
Ketoconazole (KTC) is a model pharmaceutical representing imidazole and triazole pesticides, which inhibit fungal growth through blocking a cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated step in ergosterol biosynthesis. Several of these fungicides have been shown to be reversible inhibitors of CYPs in vertebrates (primarily mammals), including CYP isoforms involved in the(More)
Nineteen children who met criteria for attention deficit disorder (ADD) received neurodevelopmental attention testing and central auditory processing (CAP) tests. The CAP tests consisted of the Staggered Spondaic Word (SSW) test and the Willeford battery of tests. Teacher and parent questionnaires (originally devised at the Learning Disabilities Clinic, The(More)
Trenbolone is an androgen agonist used in cattle production and has been measured in aquatic systems associated with concentrated animal-feeding operations. In this study, the authors characterized the effects of aqueous exposure to 17β-trenbolone during larval Xenopus tropicalis development. Trenbolone exposure resulted in increased mortality of(More)
Fifteen boys aged six to ten who met the criteria for attention deficit disorder (ADD) were compared with ten boys who did not have ADD in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-crossover study of methylphenidate. To assess the degree of overlap between ADD and central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), all subjects were assessed on parent and teacher(More)
To better understand the mechanisms by which persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) produce toxicity during fish early life stages (ELS), dose-response relationships need to be understood in relation to the dynamic distribution of chemicals in sensitive tissues. In this study, a multi-photon laser scanning microscope (MPLSM) was used to determine the(More)
Conazoles are designed to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 14α-demethylase, an enzyme key to fungal cell wall formation. In vertebrates, conazoles may inhibit other CYPs, potentially disrupting processes like sex steroid synthesis. Propiconazole is a current-use pesticide that is among the first chemicals being tested in the U.S. Environmental Protection(More)
Small aquarium fishes are increasingly used as animal models, and one of these, the Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes), is frequently utilized for toxicity testing. While these vertebrates have many similarities with their terrestrial counterparts, there are differences that must be considered if these organisms are to be used to their highest potential.(More)