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Voltage-dependent potassium ion (K+) channels (Kv channels) conduct K+ ions across the cell membrane in response to changes in the membrane voltage, thereby regulating neuronal excitability by modulating the shape and frequency of action potentials. Here we report the crystal structure, at a resolution of 2.9 angstroms, of a mammalian Kv channel, Kv1.2,(More)
Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels repolarize the action potential in neurons and muscle. This type of channel is gated directly by membrane voltage through protein domains known as voltage sensors, which are molecular voltmeters that read the membrane voltage and regulate the pore. Here we describe the structure of a chimaeric voltage-dependent K+ channel,(More)
Ion transport proteins must remove an ion's hydration shell to coordinate the ion selectively on the basis of its size and charge. To discover how the K+ channel solves this fundamental aspect of ion conduction, we solved the structure of the KcsA K+ channel in complex with a monoclonal Fab antibody fragment at 2.0 A resolution. Here we show how the K+(More)
Ion channels exhibit two essential biophysical properties; that is, selective ion conduction, and the ability to gate-open in response to an appropriate stimulus. Two general categories of ion channel gating are defined by the initiating stimulus: ligand binding (neurotransmitter- or second-messenger-gated channels) or membrane voltage (voltage-gated(More)
Voltage-dependent ion channels contain voltage sensors that allow them to switch between nonconductive and conductive states over the narrow range of a few hundredths of a volt. We investigated the mechanism by which these channels sense cell membrane voltage by determining the x-ray crystal structure of a mammalian Shaker family potassium ion (K+) channel.(More)
Voltage-dependent K+ channels are members of the family of voltage-dependent cation (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) channels that open and allow ion conduction in response to changes in cell membrane voltage. This form of gating underlies the generation of nerve and muscle action potentials, among other processes. Here we present the structure of KvAP, a(More)
Living cells regulate the activity of their ion channels through a process known as gating. To open the pore, protein conformational changes must occur within a channel's membrane-spanning ion pathway. KcsA and MthK, closed and opened K(+) channels, respectively, reveal how such gating transitions occur. Pore-lining 'inner' helices contain a 'gating hinge'(More)
ClC channels conduct chloride (Cl-) ions across cell membranes and thereby govern the electrical activity of muscle cells and certain neurons, the transport of fluid and electrolytes across epithelia, and the acidification of intracellular vesicles. The structural basis of ClC channel gating was studied. Crystal structures of wild-type and mutant(More)
Voltage-activated ion channels respond to changes in membrane voltage by coupling the movement of charges to channel opening. A K+ channel-specific radioligand was designed and used to determine the origin of these gating charges in the Shaker K+ channel. Opening of a Shaker K+ channel is associated with a displacement of 13.6 electron charge units. Gating(More)
The potassium channel from Streptomyces lividans is an integral membrane protein with sequence similarity to all known K+ channels, particularly in the pore region. X-ray analysis with data to 3.2 angstroms reveals that four identical subunits create an inverted teepee, or cone, cradling the selectivity filter of the pore in its outer end. The narrow(More)