Rod Smallwood

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Imaging of cells in two dimensions is routinely performed within cell biology and tissue engineering laboratories. When biology moves into three dimensions imaging becomes more challenging, especially when multiple cell types are used. This review compares imaging techniques used regularly in our laboratory in the culture of cells in both two and three(More)
Closely coupled in vitro and in virtuo models have been used to explore the self-organization of normal human keratinocytes (NHK). Although it can be observed experimentally, we lack the tools to explore many biological rules that govern NHK self-organization. An agent-based computational model was developed, based on rules derived from literature, which(More)
In vivo and in vitro studies give a paradoxical picture of the actions of the key regulatory factor TGF-b1 in epidermal wound healing with it stimulating migration of keratinocytes but also inhibiting their proliferation. To try to reconcile these into an easily visualized 3D model of wound healing amenable for experimentation by cell biologists, a(More)
Individual-based or agent-based models have proved useful in a variety of different biological contexts. This paper presents an agent-based model using a formal computational modelling approach to model a crucial biological system--the intracellular NF-kappaB signalling pathway. The pathway is vital to immune response regulation, and is fundamental to basic(More)
Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-beta1) is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily ligand-receptor network. and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration. The extensive in vitro and in vivo experimental literature describing its actions nevertheless describe an apparent paradox in that during re-epithelialisation it acts as proliferation inhibitor for(More)
In this study we sought to develop a computational modeling paradigm in order to describe the influence of calcium on normal and transformed keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Keratinocytes and HaCat cells were grown in monolayer cultures with low and physiologic calcium concentrations, and levels of proliferation and involucrin expression were(More)
Agent-based approaches to modelling complex systems and phenomena are becoming popular and are proving successful in a number of areas. However, the underlying basis of these techniques is sometime rather 'ad-hoc' and the models are often only applied to specific systems. This paper describes a general approach that is based on the use of fully general(More)
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM COMPRISES SEVERAL SCALES OF BIOLOGICAL COMPLEXITY: the genes, cells and tissues that work in concert to generate resultant function. Malfunctions of the structure or function of components at any spatial scale can result in diseases, to the detriment of gas exchange, right heart function and patient quality of life. Vast amounts of(More)
In-stent restenosis, the maladaptive response of a blood vessel to injury caused by the deployment of a stent, is a multiscale system involving a large number of biological and physical processes. We describe a Complex Automata Model for in-stent restenosis, coupling bulk flow, drug diffusion, and smooth muscle cell models, all operating on different time(More)
The purpose of the study is to validate the training efficacy of the PC-based Sheffield Knee Arthroscopy Training System (SKATS, as described in MMVR6). Based on a task analysis of real arthroscopy, an evaluation module has been designed to test the core psycho-motor skills used in arthroscopy. The evaluation simulates a joint inspection and triangulation(More)