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RecBCD enzyme is a processive DNA helicase and nuclease that participates in the repair of chromosomal DNA through homologous recombination. We have visualized directly the movement of individual RecBCD enzymes on single molecules of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Detection involves the optical trapping of solitary, fluorescently tagged dsDNA molecules that(More)
The DNA in human sperm chromatin is packaged into nucleoprotamine (approximately 85%) and nucleohistone (approximately 15%). Whether these two chromatin fractions are sequence-specific subsets of the spermatozoon genome is the question addressed in this report. Sequence-specific packaging would suggest distinct structural and functional roles for the(More)
We have found that the atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to image the "beads-on-a-string" chromatin structure in a normal air environment following adsorption onto a cover glass substrate. Individual nucleosome cores and linker DNA could be resolved clearly along chromatin fibers that were reconstituted using histone octamers and a tandemly repeated(More)
DNA in mammalian, and most vertebrate sperm, is packaged by protamines into a highly condensed, biochemically inert form of chromatin. A model is proposed for the structure of this DNA-protamine complex which describes the site and mode of protamine binding to DNA and postulates, for the first time, specific inter- and intraprotamine interactions essential(More)
The DNA in sperm and certain viruses is condensed by arginine-rich proteins into toroidal subunits, a form of packaging that inactivates their entire genome. Individual DNA molecules were manipulated with an optical trap to examine the kinetics of torus formation induced by the binding of protamine and a subset of its DNA binding domain, Arg6. Condensation(More)
A novel method for reconstituting sperm chromatin was used to investigate how protamine 1 condenses DNA. Complexes formed in vitro using linearized plasmid DNA were imaged and measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structures formed were found to be highly dependent on the sample preparation method used for reconstitution. Interstrand, side-by-side(More)
The development of high brightness and short pulse width (< 200 picoseconds) x-ray lasers now offers biologists the possibility of high-resolution imaging of specimens in an aqueous environment without the blurring effects associated with natural motions and chemical erosion. As a step toward developing the capabilities of this type of x-ray microscopy, a(More)
MOTIVATION Specific and sensitive ligand-based protein detection assays that employ antibodies or small molecules such as peptides, aptamers or other small molecules require that the corresponding surface region of the protein be accessible and that there be minimal cross-reactivity with non-target proteins. To reduce the time and cost of laboratory(More)
Uncoated double-stranded DNA dissolved in a salt solution was deposited on graphite and imaged in air with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The resolution was such that the major and minor grooves could be distinguished. The pitch of the helix varied between 27 and 63 angstroms in the images obtained. Thus the STM can be useful for structural(More)