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Plant nutrition critically depends on the activity of membrane transporters that translocate minerals from the soil into the plant and are responsible for their intra- and intercellular distribution. Most plant membrane transporters are encoded by multigene families whose members often exhibit overlapping expression patterns and a high degree of sequence(More)
Recent investigations have established that Arabidopsis thaliana contains a family of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters belonging to the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family. So named because of the phenotypes conferred by their animal prototypes, many MRPs are MgATP-energized pumps active in the transport of glutathione (GS)(More)
The functional capabilities of one of the smallest subfamilies of ATP-binding cassette transporters from Arabidopsis thaliana, the AtATMs, are described. Designated AtATM1, AtAATM2, and AtATM3, these half-molecule ABC proteins are homologous to the yeast mitochondrial membrane protein ATM1 (ScATM1), which is clearly implicated in the export of(More)
The vacuoles of pea (Pisum sativum) leaves and red beet (Beta vulgaris) storage root are major sites for the intracellular compartmentation of folates. In the light of these findings and preliminary experiments indicating that some plant multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) subfamily ATP-binding cassette transporters are able to transport compounds(More)
In all organisms glutathione-conjugate transporters (GS-X pumps) mediate the detoxification of a number of xenobiotics by removing them from the cytosol. In addition, GS-X pumps appear to play a role in the processing of endogenous compounds. We have isolated a novel genomic clone from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a putative GS-X pump, AtMRP4, which is(More)
A transformation system for Gibberella fujikuroi based on the Aspergillus niger nitrate reductase gene (niaD) was developed. A strain (designated SG140) carrying a non-reverting niaD mutation (niaD11) was generated by screening mutagenised cells for non-growth on nitrate as sole nitrogen source. Transformation frequencies of 1–2 transformants per μg DNA(More)
The development of designed site-specific endonucleases boosted the establishment of gene targeting (GT) techniques in a row of different species. However, the methods described in plants require a highly efficient transformation and regeneration procedure and, therefore, can be applied to very few species. Here, we describe a highly efficient GT system(More)
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