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Plant nutrition critically depends on the activity of membrane transporters that translocate minerals from the soil into the plant and are responsible for their intra- and intercellular distribution. Most plant membrane transporters are encoded by multigene families whose members often exhibit overlapping expression patterns and a high degree of sequence(More)
Glutathione (GSH) is a key component of plant antioxidant defenses. We have sought to determine how the rate-limiting step in GSH biosynthesis, catalyzed by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase (gammaECS) is regulated in Arabidopsis. Functional complementation of a yeast mutant deficient in this enzyme with an Arabidopsis expression library yielded two cDNAs(More)
We provide evidence that the tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH) participates in the regulation of cell division in the apical meristem of Arabidopsis roots. Exogenous application of micromolar concentrations of GSH raised the number of meristematic cells undergoing mitosis, while depletion of GSH had the opposite effect. A role for endogenous GSH in the(More)
The functional capabilities of one of the smallest subfamilies of ATP-binding cassette transporters from Arabidopsis thaliana, the AtATMs, are described. Designated AtATM1, AtAATM2, and AtATM3, these half-molecule ABC proteins are homologous to the yeast mitochondrial membrane protein ATM1 (ScATM1), which is clearly implicated in the export of(More)
The vacuoles of pea (Pisum sativum) leaves and red beet (Beta vulgaris) storage root are major sites for the intracellular compartmentation of folates. In the light of these findings and preliminary experiments indicating that some plant multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) subfamily ATP-binding cassette transporters are able to transport compounds(More)
The development of designed site-specific endonucleases boosted the establishment of gene targeting (GT) techniques in a row of different species. However, the methods described in plants require a highly efficient transformation and regeneration procedure and, therefore, can be applied to very few species. Here, we describe a highly efficient GT system(More)
In all organisms glutathione-conjugate transporters (GS-X pumps) mediate the detoxification of a number of xenobiotics by removing them from the cytosol. In addition, GS-X pumps appear to play a role in the processing of endogenous compounds. We have isolated a novel genomic clone from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a putative GS-X pump, AtMRP4, which is(More)
Gibberellin production in Gibberella fujikuroi starts upon exhaustion of the nitrogen source. To determine the role of nitrate and ammonium in the regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis we have isolated mutants that cannot use nitrate as a nitrogen source. Nitrate inhibited partially the production of gibberellins in mutants devoid of nitrate reductase(More)
A transformation system for Gibberella fujikuroi based on the Aspergillus niger nitrate reductase gene (niaD) was developed. A strain (designated SG140) carrying a non-reverting niaD mutation (niaD11) was generated by screening mutagenised cells for non-growth on nitrate as sole nitrogen source. Transformation frequencies of 1-2 transformants per microgram(More)
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