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We review lesion and neuroimaging evidence on the role of the hippocampus, and other structures, in retention and retrieval of recent and remote memories. We examine episodic, semantic and spatial memory, and show that important distinctions exist among different types of these memories and the structures that mediate them. We argue that retention and(More)
Temporally graded retrograde memory loss, with a disproportionate impairment of recent relative to remote memories, is considered a hallmark of medial temporal lobe amnesia. According to consolidation theory, the hippocampal complex, which includes the hippocampal formation, parahippocampal gyrus, the entorhinal and perirhinal cortex, plays a time-limited(More)
K.C. has been investigated extensively over some 20 years since a motorcycle accident left him with widespread brain damage that includes large bilateral hippocampal lesions, which caused a remarkable case of memory impairment. On standard testing, K.C.'s anterograde amnesia is as severe as that of any other case reported in the literature, including H.M.(More)
AIM Plasticity in the developing brain is a controversial issue. Although language and motor function often recover remarkably well following early brain injury, recent evidence suggests that damage to the developing brain results in significant long-term neuropsychological impairment. Our aim was to investigate the relationship among age at injury, lesion(More)
The role of feature correlations in semantic memory is a central issue in conceptual representation. In two versions of the feature verification task, participants were faster to verify that a feature (< is juicy >) is part of a concept (grapefruit) if it is strongly rather than weakly intercorrelated with the other features of that concept. Contrasting(More)
We examined the importance of autobiographical significance (AS) in the representation and organization of semantic memory by examining which famous people are most likely to be associated with specific personal memories and whether or not this AS can be distinguished from other factors, such as familiarity. Norming studies with 45- to 55-year-old and 65-(More)
The representation of autobiographical memory is distributed over a network of brain structures, with the medial temporal lobe (MTL) at its epicenter. Some believe that, over time, all memories become independent of their MTL component ("consolidation theories"). Others have suggested that this is true only of semantic memory, while episodic aspects of(More)
BACKGROUND There is no treatment protocol or standardised documentation of neurological outcome for patients with small vessel childhood primary angiitis of the CNS, a rare inflammatory brain disease. We aimed to assess a treatment regimen and describe long-term neurological outcomes in a cohort of children with this disorder. METHODS We did a(More)
CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition, associated with mutations in the notch3 gene. Symptoms include migraine with aura, mood disorders, progressive cognitive decline, subcortical ischemic strokes, dementia, and premature death. We present an(More)
Lesions restricted to the hippocampal formation and/or extended hippocampal system (hippocampal formation, fornix, mammillary bodies, and anterior thalamic nuclei) can disrupt conscious recollection in anterograde amnesia, while leaving familiarity-based memory relatively intact. Familiarity may be supported by extra-hippocampal medial temporal lobe (MTL)(More)