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We review lesion and neuroimaging evidence on the role of the hippocampus, and other structures, in retention and retrieval of recent and remote memories. We examine episodic, semantic and spatial memory, and show that important distinctions exist among different types of these memories and the structures that mediate them. We argue that retention and(More)
K.C. has been investigated extensively over some 20 years since a motorcycle accident left him with widespread brain damage that includes large bilateral hippocampal lesions, which caused a remarkable case of memory impairment. On standard testing, K.C.'s anterograde amnesia is as severe as that of any other case reported in the literature, including H.M.(More)
AIM Plasticity in the developing brain is a controversial issue. Although language and motor function often recover remarkably well following early brain injury, recent evidence suggests that damage to the developing brain results in significant long-term neuropsychological impairment. Our aim was to investigate the relationship among age at injury, lesion(More)
Temporally graded retrograde memory loss, with a disproportionate impairment of recent relative to remote memories, is considered a hallmark of medial temporal lobe amnesia. According to consolidation theory, the hippocampal complex, which includes the hippocampal formation, parahippocampal gyrus, the entorhinal and perirhinal cortex, plays a time-limited(More)
The representation of autobiographical memory is distributed over a network of brain structures, with the medial temporal lobe (MTL) at its epicenter. Some believe that, over time, all memories become independent of their MTL component ("consolidation theories"). Others have suggested that this is true only of semantic memory, while episodic aspects of(More)
The role of feature correlations in semantic memory is a central issue in conceptual representation. In two versions of the feature verification task, participants were faster to verify that a feature (< is juicy >) is part of a concept (grapefruit) if it is strongly rather than weakly intercorrelated with the other features of that concept. Contrasting(More)
We examined the importance of autobiographical significance (AS) in the representation and organization of semantic memory by examining which famous people are most likely to be associated with specific personal memories and whether or not this AS can be distinguished from other factors, such as familiarity. Norming studies with 45- to 55-year-old and 65-(More)
BACKGROUND There is no treatment protocol or standardised documentation of neurological outcome for patients with small vessel childhood primary angiitis of the CNS, a rare inflammatory brain disease. We aimed to assess a treatment regimen and describe long-term neurological outcomes in a cohort of children with this disorder. METHODS We did a(More)
The authors describe a densely amnesic man who has acquired explicit semantic knowledge of famous names and vocabulary words that entered popular culture after the onset of his amnesia. This new semantic knowledge was temporally graded and existed over and above the implicit memory he demonstrated in reading speed and accuracy, familiarity ratings, and his(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) is an objective, disease-specific outcome measure containing 115 test items suitable for newborn to adult ages. The PSOM measures neurological deficit and function across 5 subscales: right sensorimotor, left sensorimotor, language production, language comprehension, and cognitive/behavior(More)