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BACKGROUND & AIMS Methylation of CpG islands is increasingly recognized as an important event in colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated the extent of CpG island methylation in 426 sporadic colorectal cancers to define its relationship to microsatellite instability and to describe its clinicopathologic and genetic features. METHODS Fresh cancer tissue was(More)
Epigenetic silencing can mimic genetic mutation by abolishing expression of a gene. We hypothesized that an epimutation could occur in any gene as a germline event that predisposes to disease and looked for examples in tumor suppressor genes in individuals with cancer. Here we report two individuals with soma-wide, allele-specific and mosaic(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS In this study, we prospectively examined the clinical significance of the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype in sporadic colorectal cancer, and investigated methods for effective identification of these tumours in routine pathology practice. METHODS DNA was extracted from 310 tumours collected from 302 consecutive individuals(More)
Persons who have hypermethylation of one allele of MLH1 in somatic cells throughout the body (a germ-line epimutation) have a predisposition for the development of cancer in a pattern typical of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. By studying the families of two such persons, we found evidence that the epimutation was transmitted from a mother to her(More)
PURPOSE DNA methylation is an important biologic event in colorectal cancer and in some cases is associated with the development of microsatellite instability (MSI). In this study, we sought to determine the prognostic significance of DNA methylation, both in univariate analysis and in concert with other clinicopathologic factors known to influence outcome.(More)
BACKGROUND Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhoea in infants worldwide. We assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a live, oral human rotavirus vaccine, 89-12, in US children in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind multicentre trial. METHODS 215 healthy infants were enrolled, of whom 213 were given two(More)
PURPOSE Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) is a divergent member of the tumor growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Several observations suggest that it plays a role in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In particular, MIC-1 is markedly up-regulated in colorectal cancers as well as in premalignant adenomas. This study examines the relationship of serum(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is caused by heterozygous germline sequence mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes, most frequently MLH1 or MSH2. A novel molecular mechanism for HNPCC has recently been suggested by the finding of individuals with soma-wide monoallelic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. In this(More)
Genetic alterations in tumor cells often lead to the emergence of growth-stimulatory autocrine and paracrine signals, involving overexpression of secreted peptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Increased levels of these soluble proteins may be exploited for cancer diagnosis and management or as points of therapeutic intervention. Here, we combined(More)
Multiple genes and their variants that lend susceptibility to many diseases will play a major role in clinical routine. Genetics-based cost reduction strategies in diagnostic processes are important in the setting of multiple susceptibility genes for a single disease. Head and neck paraganglioma (HNP) is caused by germline mutations of at least three(More)