Robyn S Shapiro

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BACKGROUND We studied the effect of state legislation requiring the disclosure of options for the treatment of breast cancer on the use of breast-conserving surgery in clinical practice. METHODS The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry provided data on women from 30 through 79 years of age who underwent(More)
A panel of ethicists, organ procurement organization executives, physicians, and surgeons was convened by the sponsorship of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons to determine whether an ethically acceptable pilot trial could be proposed to provide a financial incentive for a family to consent to the donation of organs from a deceased relative. An(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, few studies have examined important variables in physician attitudes toward the practice of euthanasia, such as the patient's underlying disease, mental capacity, and age, and the physician's specialty and religion. We administered a case-based survey to analyze the impact of such specific variables on physician attitudes(More)
1. The ethical principle of utility is enhanced by living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). LDLT carries the potential to optimize efficient use of organs, minimize pretransplant morbidity and mortality, and increase availability of cadaveric organs. 2. The most serious ethical concerns in LDLT focus on the risks to the donor and relate to the principle(More)
The current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) system of regulating drug safety has serious limitations and is in need of changes. The major problems include the following: the design of initial preapproval studies lets uncommon, serious adverse events go undetected; massive underreporting of adverse events to the FDA postmarketing surveillance system(More)
To systematically assess the impact of malpractice litigation on the doctor-patient relationship and to collect data that might suggest effective tort reform, we surveyed 642 sued physicians, nonsued physicians, and suing patients in Wisconsin. Parallel forms of survey instruments obtained information regarding changes in physicians' practices, changes in(More)
With little prospect of developing a sufficient supply of human transplantable organs to meet the large and growing demand, attention has turned to xenotransplantation, as well as stem cell and cloning research, as possible approaches for alleviating this allograft shortage. This article explores ethical and legal issues that surround developments in these(More)