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Acquired resistance to Tamoxifen remains a critical problem in breast cancer patient treatment, yet the underlying causes of resistance have not been fully elucidated. Abberations in the Wnt signalling pathway have been linked to many human cancers, including breast cancer, and appear to be associated with more metastatic and aggressive types of cancer.(More)
The origin of the ratites, large flightless birds from the Southern Hemisphere, along with their flighted sister taxa, the South American tinamous, is central to understanding the role of plate tectonics in the distributions of modern birds and mammals. Defining the dates of ratite divergences is also critical for determining the age of modern avian orders.(More)
About 10 –15% of colorectal cancers show high-level microsatellite instability. The characteristics and very existence of low-level instability (MSI-L) are unclear, although some studies have found associations between MSI-L and molecular characteristics, notably more frequent K-ras mutations and a low level of allele loss near APC. We have attempted to(More)
Researchers worldwide with information about the Kirsten ras (Ki-ras) tumour genotype and outcome of patients with colorectal cancer were invited to provide that data in a schematized format for inclusion in a collaborative database called RASCAL (The Kirsten ras in-colorectal-cancer collaborative group). Our results from 2721 such patients have been(More)
Biallelic protein-truncating mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are prevalent in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Mutations may not be fully inactivating, instead producing WNT/β-catenin signalling levels 'just-right' for tumourigenesis. However, the spectrum of optimal APC genotypes accounting for both hits, and the influence of(More)
PURPOSE Current serum testing for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) lacks specificity. On diagnosis, the optimal therapeutic pathway is not clear and tools for adequate risk assessment of localized PCa progression are not available. This leads to a significant number of men having unnecessary diagnostic biopsies and surgery. A search for novel tumor(More)
Gene expression profiling offers a promising new technique for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. We have applied this technology to build a clinically robust site of origin classifier with the ultimate aim of applying it to determine the origin of cancer of unknown primary (CUP). A single cDNA microarray platform was used to profile 229 primary and(More)
AIMS The debate on the funding and availability of cytotoxic drugs raises questions about the contribution of curative or adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy to survival in adult cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS We undertook a literature search for randomised clinical trials reporting a 5-year survival benefit attributable solely to cytotoxic(More)
The HER-2/neu protein is overexpressed in approximately 20% of human adenocarcinomas and is a defined tumor antigen in breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endogenous HER-2/neu specific antibody response in 57 patients with colorectal cancer. HER-2/neu specific antibodies, titer > or = 1:100, were detected in 14% (8/57) of patients(More)
Aberrant Wnt signalling is implicated in numerous human cancers, and understanding the effects of modulation of pathway members may lead to the development of novel therapeutics. Expression of secreted frizzled related protein 4 (SFRP4), an extracellular modulator of the Wnt signalling pathway, is progressively lost in more aggressive ovarian cancer(More)