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Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed(More)
Squamates classified as 'subarenaceous' possess the ability to move long distances within dry sand; body elongation among sand and soil burrowers has been hypothesized to enhance subsurface performance. Using X-ray imaging, we performed the first kinematic investigation of the subsurface locomotion of the long, slender shovel-nosed snake (Chionactis(More)
An extensive study on the sun protection factors (SPF) of sun care products was carried out using the COLIPA (The European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association) method, which relates to in vivo experiments. Furthermore, in vitro methods were tested with sunscreen formulations that were prepared as films on surface-roughened plates of polymethyl(More)
The analytical fractionation of aquatic humic substances (HS) by means of immobilized metal-chelate affinity chromatography (IMAC) on metal-loaded chelating ion exchangers is described. The cellulose HYPHAN, loaded with different trivalent ions, and the chelate exchanger Chelex 100, loaded to 90% of its capacity with Fe(III), were used. The cellulose(More)
A flash thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique has been developed for the determination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), especially the highly toxic planar species, in sewage sludge. A modified Curie-point pyrolyzer was used; in this the flash-desorption temperature was controlled by selecting specific metal alloys for the pyrolysis(More)
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