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We performed a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to study whether early treatment with erythropoietin could prevent the development of acute kidney injury in patients in two general intensive care units. As a guide for choosing the patients for treatment we measured urinary levels of two biomarkers, the proximal tubular brush border enzymes(More)
Changes in plasma concentrations of sex steroids were examined in male and female zebra finch chicks during the sensitive period for differentiation of sexually dimorphic brain nuclei associated with the control of song. Using a chromatographic separation procedure and radioimmunoassay, androstenedione, testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone were(More)
Recent evidence indicates that 17beta-estradiol may have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties. Estradiol is formed locally in neural tissue from precursor androgens. The expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is restricted, under normal circumstances, to specific neuronal populations. These(More)
Human brain steroidogenic mechanisms, particularly aromatase, have been investigated in healthy and diseased conditions. Aromatase activity was measured in differentiated and undifferentiated neuroblastoma cell lines from mouse (TMN) and human (5H SY5Y) and in human post mortem brain samples. Neuroblastomas show much higher aromatase activity than human(More)
Intact, breeding female budgerigars enter and occupy a nestbox 8-10 days before egg-laying. Ovariectomized budgerigars did not enter nestboxes. Oestradiol-17 beta monobenzoate (OB) (0-05 mg, i.m.) induced ovariectomized birds to enter nestboxes. Higher dosages (0-1 or 0-5 mg) did not facilitate this effect. The amount of time spent in nesting behaviour by(More)
Oestrogens are formed from androgens in the mouse brain, but the localization of aromatase activity is unresolved. Immunocytochemistry has not detected aromatase in expected key androgen target areas such as the medial preoptic area. Using a micropunch method and a sensitive in vitro 3H2O product detection assay, we report significant aromatase activity in(More)
The neurotrophic effects of oestrogen formed in the brain are important in brain sexual differentiation of the central nervous system and behaviour. Aromatase, converting testosterone to oestradiol-17beta, is a key enzyme involved in brain development. In primary cell cultures of foetal hypothalamus, we have found that male neurones consistently have higher(More)
Steroid sex hormones have an organizational role in gender-specific brain development. Aromatase (cytochrome P450AR), converting testosterone (T) to estradiol-17 beta (E2) is a key enzyme in brain development and the regulation of aromatase determines the availability of E2 effective for neural differentiation. Gender differences in brain development and(More)
Estrogen formed by aromatization of testosterone (T) is involved in the activation of sexual behavior and control of the neuroendocrine system in the male Syrian hamster. Our study examined whether daylength influences formation of estrogen in the preoptic area (POA) and other neuroendocrine areas (anterior hypothalamus, AHT, and medial amygdala, MA) which(More)