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In a 1966 American Naturalist article, G. C. Williams initiated the study of reproductive effort (RE) with the prediction that longer-lived organisms ought to expend less in reproduction per unit of time. We can multiply RE, often measured in fractions of adult body mass committed to reproduction per unit time, by the average adult life span to get lifetime(More)
While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv) also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how(More)
Exposure to adverse environmental conditions during early development can shape life-history traits and have lasting effects on physiological function in later life. Although findings within the biomedical literature have shown that environmentally induced elevations in glucocorticoids (GCs) during critical developmental windows can cause persistent(More)
Pathogens may induce different immune responses in hosts contingent on pathogen characteristics, host characteristics, or interactions between the two. We investigated whether the broadly effective acute-phase response (APR), a whole body immune response that occurs in response to constitutive immune receptor activation and includes fever, secretion of(More)
Fundamental to life-history theory is the assumed inverse proportionality between the number of offspring and the resource allocation per offspring. Lizards have been model organisms for empirical tests of this theory for decades; however, the expected negative relationship between clutch size and offspring size is often not detected. Here we use the(More)
Carbon stable isotope (delta(13)C) analysis can be used to infer the origin and to estimate the flow of nutrient resources through animals and across ecological compartments. These applications require knowledge of the rates at which carbon is incorporated into animal tissues and diet-to-tissue discrimination factors (Delta(13)C). Studies of carbon dynamics(More)
In many ecosystems, seasonal shifts in temperature and precipitation induce pulses of primary productivity that vary in phenology, abundance, and nutritional quality. Variation in these resource pulses could strongly influence community composition and ecosystem function, because these pervasive bottom-up forces play a primary role in determining the(More)
The extent to which interactions between environmental stressors and phenotypic variation during larval life stages impose carry-over effects on adult phenotypes in wildlife are not clear. Using semi-natural mesocosms, we examined how chronically low food availability and size-specific phenotypes in larval amphibians interact and carry over to influence(More)