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Retrograde signaling is essential for coordinating the growth of synaptic structures; however, it is not clear how it can lead to modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics and structural changes at presynaptic terminals. We show that loss of retrograde bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) leads to a(More)
At the Drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a motor neuron releases glutamate from 30-100 boutons onto the muscle it innervates. How transmission strength is distributed among the boutons of the NMJ is unknown. To address this, we created synapcam, a version of the Ca2+ reporter Cameleon. Synapcam localizes to the postsynaptic(More)
Presynaptic I(h) channels become activated during a tetanus through membrane hyperpolarization resulting from Na(+) accumulation and electrogenic Na(+)/K(+) exchange. I(h) activation is obligatory for inducing long-term facilitation (LTF), a long-lasting synaptic strengthening. cAMP-induced synaptic enhancement also requires I(h) activation, and both(More)
Emerging data implicate microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of synaptic structure and function, but we know little about their role in the regulation of neurotransmission in presynaptic neurons. Here, we demonstrate that the miR-310-313 cluster is required for normal synaptic transmission at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. Loss of miR-310-313(More)
The strength of synaptic transmission between a neuron and multiple postsynaptic partners can vary considerably. We have studied synaptic heterogeneity using the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which contains multiple synaptic connections of varying strengths between a motor axon and muscle fiber. In larval NMJs, there is a gradient(More)
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