Learn More
Invasive infection with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria often results in septic shock and death. The basis for the earliest steps in innate immune response to Gram-positive bacterial infection is poorly understood. The LPS component of the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall appears to activate cells via CD14 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4.(More)
The ability of a host to sense invasion by pathogenic organisms and to respond appropriately to control infection is paramount to survival. In the case of sepsis and septic shock, however, an exaggerated systemic response may, in fact, contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with overwhelming infections. The innate immune system has evolved as(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main inducer of shock and death in Gram-negative sepsis. Recent evidence suggests that LPS-induced signal transduction begins with CD14-mediated activation of 1 or more Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The lipid A analogues lipid IVa and Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A (RSLA) exhibit an uncommon species-specific pharmacology. Both(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 are signal transducers for lipopolysaccharide, the major proinflammatory constituent in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We observed that membrane lipoproteins/lipopeptides from Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma fermentans activated cells heterologously expressing TLR2 but not those(More)
The ability of a host to sense invasion by a pathogenic organism, and to respond appropriately to control infection, is paramount to survival. To that end, an array of receptors and binding proteins has evolved as part of the innate immune system to detect Gram-negative bacteria. This article reviews the role of CD14, other LPS binding proteins, and the(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently been identified as fundamental components of the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. We investigated the role of TLR signaling in immune defense of the mucosal epithelial cells of the lower female genital tract. This site provides first line defense against microbial pathogens while remaining tolerant to a(More)
Group B streptococci (GBS) vigorously activate inflammatory responses. We reported previously that a secreted GBS "factor" activates phagocytes via Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR6, but that GBS cell walls activate cells independently of these receptors. We hypothesized that the phagocytic immune functions in response to GBS, such as inflammation, uptake,(More)
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative pathogen and the etiologic agent of significant ocular and genital tract diseases. Chlamydiae primarily infect epithelial cells, and the inflammatory response of these cells to the infection directs both the innate and adaptive immune response. This study focused on determining the cellular(More)
This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of CD14 and complement receptors type 3 (CR3) and 4 (CR4) in mediating TNF release and NF-kappaB activation induced by LPS and cell wall preparations from group B streptococci type III (GBS). LPS and GBS caused TNF secretion from human monocytes in a CD14-dependent manner, and soluble CD14, LPS binding protein,(More)
Exaggerated responses by phagocytes to bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] may result in the sepsis syndrome. While a number of LPS-binding proteins have been identified on immune cells, only CD14 has been definitively shown to be involved in signal transduction in response to LPS. The beta2 leukocyte integrins are a family of transmembrane(More)